# Biol4 Equations

Equations needed for Unit 4 Section 1 Biology

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## Mark-Release-Recapture

Estimated Population Size=

(Total no. of individuals in first sample x total no. of individuals in the second sample) ÷ (No. of marked individuals recaptured)

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## Population Growth

Population Growth=

(Births+Immigration)-(Deaths+Emigration)

Percentage Population Growth rate in given period=

(Population change during the period ÷ Population at the start of the period) x 100

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## Birth Rate and Death Rate

Birth Rate=

(number of births per year ÷ total population in the same year) x 100

Death Rate=

(number of deaths per year ÷ total population in the same year) x 100

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## Section 2

ATP + (H2O) --> ADP + Pi + E

adenosine triphosphate + water --> adenosine diphosphate + inorganic phosphate + energy

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## Photosynthesis

6CO2 +6H2O à C6H12O6 + 6O2

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## Photolysis

2H2O --> 4H+ + 4e- + O2

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Pyruvate + NAD + CoA --> acetyl CoA +reduced NAD + CO2

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## Production of ethanol in plants and some microorga

pyruvate + reduced NAD --> ethanol + carbon dioxide + NAD

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## Production of lactate in animals

pyruvate + reduced NAD --> lactate + NAD

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## Net production

net production= gross production - respiratory losses

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## Efficiency of energy transfers

Energy=

(energy available after the transfer/energy available before transfer)×100

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## Hardy- Weinburg

p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1.0

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