1)  Carbon dioxide + Water --Light and Chlorophyl--> Glucose + Oxygen

     6CO2+6H2O----> C6H12O6+6O2

2)Large surface area ( max. light exposure)

  • Stomata (gas in and out)
  • Surface layer of palisade cells (with chloroplast)
  • Spongy mesophyll (gas exchange)
  • Waxy cuticle (stop water loss)
  • Thin leaf (facilatate gas diffusion)
  • Xylem and Phloem
  • Chlorophyll (absorb light)
  • Guard cells (open and close stomata)

3) Photosynthesis- done by plants to make glucose

    Respiration- done by all living things to make energy

4) Plants use glucose to respire and provide energy for the cells     

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Limiting factors

1) Light intensity, temperature, amount of carbon dioxide

2) Point 1: Carbon dioxide is limiting it    Point 2:  Another factor is limiting it

3) The incverse square law describes the intensity of light at different distances from a light source

    Light intensity is proportional to 1/distance squared

4) Light intensity- you could put artificial lamps in so if there isn't enough light the plants can still photosynthesis

Carbon dioxide- put a paraffin burner in the greenhouse and have windows to let carbon dioxide in

Temperature- put screens in the greenhouse so if it gets too hot or cold you can put the screens down to regualte the temperature and put a heater in to give off the right amount of heat so the plants can still photosynthesis

5) This graph is showing the rate of photo synthesis when there is different concentrations of CO2 and different temperatures. In this graph the limiting factor is the concentration of CO2

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Aerobic and Anaerobic

1) Oxygen+Glucose----> Carbon Dioxide+Water


2) The anerobic respiration of yeast make alcohol.It respires without oxygen and produces alcohol (ethanol). This is called fermentation and is also used for bread


  • Working your muscles
  • Growth and repair of cells
  • Allowing chemical reactions to take place 

4) Less energy is released as there is an absence of oxygen

5) Plants and yeast: glucose--> carbon dioxide+ethanol

Humans: glucose--> lactic acid

6) Mitochondria. Having more folds creates a larger surface area

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Effects of Excercise

1) Meatbolism is all the chemical reactions that happen in an organsism. All these reactions are controlled by enzymes e.g digestion reactions (breaking lipids into glycerol and fatty acids)


  • Increased: rate and depth of breathing, sweat rate, rate of respiration, heart rate
  • Redirection of blood away from digestive system
  • Arteries dialate to increase blood flow to nucleus 

3) Cardiac output- the volume of blood that leaves the heart per minute

Stroke volume- volume of blood oumped by the left ventricle in each heart beat

Heart rate- number of times the heart beats per minute

4) a) The volume of oxygen needed to break down the lactic acid to CO2 + H20 is known as oxygen debt

b) Lactic acid is taken to the liver by the blood and either oxidised to CO2 + H2O or converted to glucose then glycogen

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