Udzungwa Mountain National Park; A Prisine Area
276 trees species, 50 edemic and 55 recorded mammal species.
Provides local villagers with water shed protection, medicines and food.
Villagers are also allowed limited and highly controlled; fuelwood collecting, but hunting is prohibited.
Rapid population growth fuelled by immigration, with mnay people short of land and employment.
The authorities realised quickly they needed to get involved in bottom up strategies.
Agriculture diversification projects such as bee keeping provides needed employment.
The Udzungwa shows that given the difficulty of protecting the area, giving the locals sustainable job projects, brings long term benefits.
The Masai Mara Game Reserve; a degraded area
Reserve belonging to the Masai people, experienced a breakdown in managment.
Park fees paid by tourists were meant to go towards protecting the reserve and providing social services and support for local tribes living in adjacent land.
Park Rangers were not properly paid and lacked proper equipment such as radios and four wheel drives.
Therefore, couldn't do much to stop illegal hunting of Giraffes and Zebras the animal the tourists wanted to see.
In June 08 the local councils were replaced by private organisation called Mara Conservation.
A gift of £300000 from two foreign doners, purchased four new four wheel drives, repaired roads and paid rangers.
Its is a non profit organisation that uses 50%to build roads and future anti poaching patrols. And the other 50% filters to the tribes.
Souifere Marine Managment Area; Protected Area
Managment area focused around the coastal town of Souifere in St Lucia.
Conflict between fishing and tourism led to the SMMA creation in 1995.
A range of environmental problems began to get out of hand:
- Depletion of near shore fish resouces.
- Yacht ancher damage to coral reefs.
- Pollution from rubbish disposal in rivers or into sea.
- Degradation of beach landscapes and environmental quality by hotel developments.
There were five main stakeholders conflicts:
- Between fisherman and local and national authorities over location of a jetty in a fishing area.
- Between yatchs and fisherman because of anchoring in fisher areas.
- Between local community and hotelliers over acess to beach.
Southern Ocean Fisheries
Accounts for 10% of the worlds Ocean.
Antartic treaty system (1961) fisheries are now sustainably managed.
Before this the seas were over fished by fleets of Soviet Trawlers, leading to the extinction of several species.
Single species approach involves considering harvesting species both on their own and in relation to dependant species and the whole environment.
The precautionary principle aims to model the consequences of any planned expansions of catched before it is permitted.
Camp Fire, Zimbabwe
Setup in 1980's, and aimed at long term development , managment and sustainable use of natural resources in each communial area.
It was achieved by placing responsiblity with local people allowing community to benefit directly from exploitation.
Due to it being a bottom up strategy the schemes varied locally with back up provided by the Zimbabwe department of national parks.