Biochemistry

Degration of Polysaccharides

 1. Amylosis                                                       3. Hydorlysis

- Brake down of amylopection and amylose                                   - Add water  

- Amylose enzymes: Alpha-amylase & Beta-amylase                     - OH-mono & H-mono

- Alpha -amylase ---> alpha maltose and glucose

- Beta-amylase ---> Beta maltase                                                         4. Cellulolysis

- Amylopectin Enzyme: Alpha-1:6- glucosidase                                        - 2 Enzymes; Endocellulase & Exocellulase

- produces alpha glucose                                                                         - Endocellulase ----> glucose & Cellulobiose

2. Glycogenolysis                                                                                   - Exocellulase ---> Cellulobiose

- 3 Enzymes; Phosphorylase, Transferase, alpha- 1:6- glucosidase                          

- Phosphorylase ---> Releases all phosphate groups attached                                      5. Phosphorylation

- Transferase ---> Moves 3 glucose molecules to the non-reducing end                       - Add Phosphoric Acid

- alpha-1:6-glucosidase ---> Brakes the 1:6 links between branched chains                  - P-mono & OH-mono

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Regenration of NAD+

1. Anaerobically

- Production of Ethanol

Pyruvate + NADH -----> Lactic Acid + NAD+

Lactate dehydrogenase

- Production of Lactic Acid

Pyruvate -----> Acetaldehyde (+CO2) -----> Ethanol (+NAD+)

Pyruvate decarboxylase & Alcohol dehydrogenase

2. Aerboically

- Mitochondria ( ETC)

- 3 ATP made for every NAD+ which enters the ETC

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Link reaction

Pyruvate -------------> Acetyl co.A

- NAD+ hydrogen carrier

- C02 is relased

- Co.ASH added

enzyme = pyruvate dehydrogenase

Cofactors:

TPP

Lipoic Acid

Magnesium

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