BIO AS Module 3 BIoiversity and Evolution


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  • Created by: Jamie
  • Created on: 19-04-12 21:05


What is a species? what is a habitat? whats specific aboiut it? What are organisms to habitat? Especially if? Give habitat examples? What does biodiversity inclue all? what does it include that they contain? What does it include that they form? Its not just about the number its also represents? What does it take into account? What variety is biodiversity about? Biodiversity at a number of levels- what’s one? Another Is the difference between what? What are all species? what differences? Another is what variation between what? What does this variation ensure?

What cant we be sure of? whats being found? What’s continuing? What’s happening to some species?

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is a group of individual organisms very similiar in appearance, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry and genetics whose members are able to interbreed freely to produce fertile offspring, the place where an organism lives, locality with a specific set of conitions and organism living there, well adapted, conditiosns are extreme, different lant animal fungus and microorganism species worldwide the genes they contain and the ecosystes of which they form a part, degree of natures variety, the number of indivudlas and in how many places they can be found, the structura and functional variety in the living world, raneg of habitats in which different species live, species, different from each other, strctural functional, indivudas belonging to the same species, we dont look alike

found all species on earth, new species, evolution adn soeciation, they are becoming endangered or extinct

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Sampling Plants

What do me measure the biodiversity of? What needs to be observed? What needs to be done? What needs to be counted? Ideally what should this be done for all? why isn’t this practical? What does on estimate suggest? What is done instead? What is selected? What can be multiplied? To do what? Why must you randomly choose a position to sample in the habitat? What if they’re included in a quantitative sample? In the random sample what do you estimate? What three ways can do this? What will the number of samples depend on? What  will also be needed to take into account? What should the number of samples be sufficient to give? When comparing two habitats what number stays the same? What are the results recorded in? what should the table consist of?

Sampling plants- whats hard to sample? Whats can you do here? What can the random sampling miss? Whats important to carry out then?  What should you do with these? With no what? Meaning? What data is tis? Wht data cant you use it for? What is a quadrat? Where do you place the quadrat? What do you identify? What do you measure? What scale can be used to measure abundance? wats possible to estiamte? what do most sstudents do? what can hep estiamtes? what acn you measure percantge cover using? what is it? what do do you do? what will each plant have then? What is a transect? Where do you take samples? What habiata would you use this? whats interrupted bet transect? what data is provided? whats the alterntaive? wat do you do? what data will this give?

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habitat, all the species present, identify them, how many indivudla of each species thereare, plants animals fungi bacter and other sing-celled organisms, the umber of fungi bacteria and single-celled oranisms is impossib eto ****, theyre are a bilion of single celled orgganism per square metre soil, sample a habitat, small portion of the habiat, the numbers of indivdlas of each species found, to represne the whole habitat, you may choose to include very obivous plants over others, this may bias the number, randomly choose the positon of your sample site, the size of the habitat and decide where to sample ebfore studying an area in deitala, take sample at regular distances acorss the habitat use random numbers generatde by a computer too plot ocordinates or select coordinates from a map of the area and use a aportable global positoning satelite to dins the exaxt positionin the habitat, size of the hbiata and time available, diversity of the habitat, an accurate measure of the number of species in the habitat and their relatie abundance, same number of samples, table to record results, all speies you may find record the data for each sample site,

smaer herbs and grassess, percetage of ground cover, plants that occur only infrequently, visual survey, present but no abudnance, qualitative, statistcal analysis

a square frame used to define the size of the sampe area, may be any size, random in the habitat, planst found in the frame, abundance, ACFOR scale Abundant common frueqent obvious and rare, percentage cover most unerestimate though, make quadrat into smaler squares, point frsame, frame holding needles or pointers, into the aquadrat, any pant touching it is recorded,1%,  a linke taken acorss the abiat, long rope or tape, in a large habitat, plant touching the line at intervals, to place a a qudrat at set intervals, quantitative, continous belt transect, quadrat beside the line and move it along the line so you can study a belt ined tai, quantitaive,

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Sampling Plants

Why are animals hard to sample? What will samping do to the habitat? hat will the animal detct what will they try to do? How do we overcome this? What shouldn’t be trapped? What do you do then? What may be possible to do? Whats an alternative? Like what?

Whats sweep netting? What will be caight? What do you do then? What devie can be used? To do what? When is this type of sampling useful? Where wont sweep netting work? Whts better? What do the vibrations cuase? What is a pitfall trap? What does it consist of? what wil fall into? What is a tull green funnel for? Whats placed in the funne? What drives te animals downwards? What do they fall through? Wat can collect fying insects what does it consist of? whats under the light?

What can samping cause? What mya this be temporaryiu what may sampling case? Give four reasons why we need to study the habitat?

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they move when disturbed, will disturb the habitat, will detct your prescene and hide, yu need to cath or trap the animal and estime the number trapped, larger animal, observe them from a far, orsigns that an animal was there footprints roppings,

techniuqe depends on the habitat and type of animal, involves walking through the hbitati with a stout net and sweeping through the vegetation in wide arcs, small animals like insects will get caiught, empty the contents to identify them, some may crawl or fly , pooter, to colect the animals before they escape, ow vegetation, water, swepeing a net through a tree, sweep onto a white *****, disolge of any small animals, count the white sheet, trap set in the spi to catch small naimals, small container buried in soil rim blow surface, theyl fall into the container, water to catch them and esceping, a device coeitng small animals from leaf litter, funnel, light atrarcts them as the litter dries and warms, through the mesh scren to be colected, fying insetcs at night, utroviolent light which attrats them, fall into the achol

disutrabne, temporary or ong term, trampking vegetation, humana ctivites affect the eviroment in a number of ways so we study to see what we affect EIA is part of planning proceess, estimate the effects of planned devlopement , maintiang habitats ad reducing damde we do to them

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Classification and Taxonomy

What is biological classification? What does it involve detailed study of? what can they be plad in? with what? What do they show? What are some classifications? Made for what? Give eample? What is taxonomy? What does this means the study of? what can these difference be used to do? What are they group according to? What are species that look simiiar? And that are different? Whats the basic unit of natural classification? What is a species? what will individual members of a species show? Give example? As they are similar what are they considered? What can different species that are similar be considered? What will two closely related specie be placed in what will closely related groups be placed n? what happens this way? what has modern classification come to reflect? What can they be thought to beling to? What were all species once? What is the point that they started to evolcve? The more recent the common ancestor the more what? What do they have?

What is phylogeny? What does ti reflect? Where can we see this? What is this used for? Do our common acnestors survive today? What cant we be considered to have evolved from? What can we be considered to evolve from? What did gorillas evolve from?

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the prcess of sroting living things into groups, indivualds in a species, category with other species that show a numbe rof simiiar characteristics, artifical, our conveniance, in a wid flower guide the plants are grouped accoridng to coour which enables you to turn quicky to selection of the guide, study of pricnciples bheind cassification, differces between species, classify species, physical similiarties, look similiar are placed together, seperate grouops, species, a group of indiuald organism that are very simiiar in appearance anatomy physiology biochemsitry and genetics, variation, closely related, closely related, in a grouo together, placed together in a larger group, a herirachy, evolutionary distance between species, evolutionary tree, had a common ancestor at some time, branch point on the tree, short eovlutionary distance,

study of how closely different species are related, evolutioanry relationships, evolutiionary tree, the close they apear the more revently tin the past they shared an ancestor, basis for natura classification, our common ancestor doesnt survive today, apes or gorrillas, we evolved from an ancestor that live at some tim ein the past from that same ancestor

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The Five Kingdoms

What kingdom do prokaryotes belong to? What did it used to be called? What do these organisms include? What does porkaroyte mean? What the aminf eature? Why? What don’t prokarytoes have then? What do they have DNA wise? What don’t they have? Whats smaller? Whats different about respiration? Where? Cell size? Are they freeliving?

What are al members of the kingdom protoctista? What does this group contain organisms that are? What does it also contain? Like? What do they show  a variety of? what features? Are they free viign? What sort of nutrition? Give examples? Whats the only thing they all have in common?

What do the members of the fungi kingdom  bodys consist of? whats that?  Whats the cytoplasm surrounded by? Of what called? Is the cytoplasm divide? What doe it have many of? what hti called? What are a few? Are the eukaryote or pro? Are they free living? And what? What does this mean?

what kingdom do plants belong to are plant single or multicellular? How do they gain nutrition? What doe this mean they are? Are they eukaryuote or pro? What are celsl surrounded by what do they produce? From what?

what kingdom are animals? Are animals multicellular? How do thy gian nutrition/. Making them? Are thye eukaryotes or pro?  what sort of reproduction? What are they usually able to do?

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Prokaryota, monera, bcteria and the cyanobacteria, before nucleus, they evolved before the nucelus became the place to keep DNA, no nuceus, loop of naked DNA that isnt arranged in inear chromsomes, no membrane bound organelles, smaller ribosomes, respiration not in mitochondria but on spcial membrane sustem mesoomes, cells smler thant hose of eukaryotes, free lviing or parasitc some cuase disease

eukaryotes, organsims that are singe celed, some multicelluaar, algae, proistsm eukaryotesm singe celed, wide variety of forms, plant like or animal like features, mostly free living, autotrophic or hetertriphic nutrition, some photosynthesise some ingest prey some feed using extracelluar enxymes some parasites, they do not ualify to beong to any of the other four kingdoms

myceium, network of hypae, by a wall of a polysaccharide called chitin, divided into cells, nuclei, multinuceltiate, cellular, eukaryotes, mostly free lviing and saprophytic this means that they cause decau of organic matter

plantaem multicelluar, autotrophs gain nutrition from photosyntheiss, eukaryotes, multicelluar, cels surrounded by cell wall, multicelluar embryos form fertilised eggs, autotrophic nutrition

animala, multiceluar, gain nutrion by digesting and absorbin organic matter, heterotrophic, eukaryoes multicelluar, heteretrophic nutriton, fertilised eggs that develop into a ball of calles called blasta, uslly can move aroundh

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Classifying living things

What seems to be a basic human need? What is a huge task? Why? What must happen to each? To ddo what? Give four reasons why? What does understanding we have close reatives in the animal kingdom help us understand? What do we put animals into? What are they called?

How many taxa in the current classification? List them? What do all members of species show? What happens as you rise through the taxa grouos? What gets less and less? What is in genus? Whats their lrelation like? How many genera in each family? Does this pattern continue? What are the three domains?

What are the differneces like at higher levels of the ranked system? Whats easy then when does it become more difficult? Why? What is needed? What happens as you decend? Why?  Give the human taxa?

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put hings in order or to sort them out, categorising all living things, there are 2million different species and each myst be studied in detail then placed in a group of similiar ogranisms, our convenciance

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