Bio Core Questions

Bio Core - Biological Molecules 1

-what are the key elements are present as inorganic ions in living organisms are
-what are the main elements in biological molecukes
-What is magnesium, iron, calcium and phosphate's role?
-What is oxygen described as? What is its significant? What does it make the molecule?
-What is adhesion?
What are the properties of water? (8)
What are condensation reactions
What are hydrolysis reactions?
What are monosacchardies? - what is the molecular forumal, the role and name of 3,4,5 and 6 carbon monosaccharides, what are the properties of monosaccharides
How do you test for (non)-reducing sugars?
What are the 3 disacchardies
What is the most reactive groups in a disaccharide?
What is the bond called that links 2 + monosaccharides together
Polysaccharides - what are they? What are the 2 isomers of glucose ad their significance? How do you test for starch?
What is starch made up of?
What is glycogen made up of?
How are starch and glycogen transported to areas where energy is needed?
What are structural polysacchardies?
What is cellulose?
How do you form microfibrils?
How do chains confer strength on the molecule? What prevents osmotic lysis in plant cell walls? What is chitin? How is it different/similar to chitin? What are the properties of chitin that make it suitabble for its job?

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Bio Core - Biological Molecules 2

What are the properties of polysacchardies - (4) What is a triglyceride made up of? What is the structural formula for glycerol?
what is the bond between triglycerides
What is the general formula for unsaturated fatty acids?
What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids? What are functions of triglycerides?(7) Similarities and differences betweentrigylcerides and phospholipids What are waxes
what is the test for lipids
What are the implications of saturated fats on health
What is the general formula for an amino acid How many different types of amino acids are there What is a protein
What are the various bondings between proteins
what is the bonding between 2 peptides?
Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure are? Insulin is made up of Collagen and hameaglobin - (4 each) What are fibrous proteins and their function? What are globular proteins and their function
What is the test for protein

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Bio Core - Cell structure 1

What are all cells surrounded  by?What are eukaryotic cells?
What do membranes do and allow?
What is the function of plant cell walls?
What are the organelles - 10
Nucleus - structure (5) and function (4)
ER rough - structure (6), function (2) Other (1)
ER smooth - structure (1) function (1)
Ribosomes - structure (3), function (1) Other (3)
Mitochondria - Structure (5), function (2), other (1)
Golgi - structure (2), function (5), other (2)
lysosomes - structure (2), function (4)
Centrioles - are found in?, structure (2), fuction (1)
Chloroplasts - found in? structure (7), fuction (1)
Vacuole - structure (2), function (4)
Plasmodesmata - strucutre (1), function (1), found in?
How are organelles interrelated?

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Bio Core - Cell structure 2

Plant vs Animal cells (6)
Prokayrotic structure drawing
Prokayrotic vs Eukaryotic (6)
Prokayrotic cells include...
Where does DNA lie in prokaryotic cells
What type of DNA do they have?
What are plasmids?
How are plasmids transferred to another bacterium?
Ribosomes comparison
What is the cytoplasm bound by?
Do they have a cell wall?
What is the capsule used for?
What is the site of respiration called? What are their structure?
What are viruses?
what is the cell theory?
Structure and function of ciliated,columnar, sqamous epithelia, striated, smooth and cardiac muscle and connective tissue
mm - micrometers conversion?

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Bio Core - membranes + transport 1

What are all living cells surrounded by>
What do most organelles have around them?Function of membranes
What are the components of a plasa membrane? (4)
What is the fluid mosaic model?
What affects the position of proteins in the membrane?
What are the components of a phospholipid?
What are the components attracted to and why?
What are the types of proteins (4)
How far away are the 2 layers
What do channel/carrier proteins transport and how
What are the 2 types in glycocalyx - what are their functions -5
What is the role of cholesterol
What affects the permeability of the plasma membrane and how
What affects the rate of diffusion (6)
What are the different transport methods (6)

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Bio Core - membranes + transport 2

What is water potential
What is the eqn to calculate WP
What are the units
What is the movement between cells
Hypotonic vs  hypertonic vs Isotonic solutions
What is the effect of osmosis
How do cells become turgid or plasmolysed?
What is incipient plasmolysis
what stops active transporthow do temperature and ethanol affect permability

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Bio Core - Enzymes 1

What do cells carry out?
What are "those" reactions dependent on
What are enzymes and what do they do
What are intracellular/extracellular
What are catalysts, how do they workWhat are anabolic and catabolic reactions
What biological molecules do enzymes come under - what structure
What are the 2 theories - how do they work
What are the 3d structrue of enzymes - how does it help the reactions?
What happens at low temps(5), as temperature increases (5), above optimum (4)
What bonds do temperature break
What does pH do (4)
Bond broken
What are competitive inhibitors - irreversible vs reversible
What are non-competitve inhibitors
Immobilise enzymes are. Pros - (6), cons (2), uses (6) Biosensors are and uses
How does the glucos biosensor work

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Bio Core - Nucleic acids 1

What are the structure of nucleotides - what are their roles (3
Structure of DNA, RNA and ATP
Bases in DNA vs RNA, pyrimidine vs purine bases
What is respiration
Anaerobic vs aerobic
Reaction linking ATP and ADP
Energy comes from... energy is used for
Advantages of ATP - 6
What is ATP called and why
Differences of DNA and RNA (8)
3 types of RNA and their jobs
How does DNA replication occur
The 3 theories for replication
How Watson and Crick eliminated proved 1
Genetic code is and what are amino acids (triples, codons)
Eukaryotic vs Prokaryotic - coding vs non-coding and introns vs exon
How does protein synthesis occur
post-translation modification

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