Bio 1 - Carbohydrates

  • Created by: Abi_moon
  • Created on: 15-05-20 18:08


  • contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
  • several types = e.g. sugars, starch and cellulose.
  • polymer = polysaccharides.

Polymer: large molecules made up of monomers (smaller units)

  • monosaccharides are the monomers of polysaccharides. 
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  • small, water-soluble molecules.
  • taste sweet.

Divided in 2 groups:


  • single units from which all other carbohydrates are built from.
  • glucose & fructose are both monosaccharides. 

Glucose has two forms: alpha & beta. (task: draw the structures of each)


  • formed when two monosaccharides are joined together by a chemical reaction.
  • molecule of water is also formed (condensation reaction)

glucose + glucose = maltose (a disaccharide) + water

glucose + frutose = sucrose (a disaccharide) + water

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  • starch molecules = made up of two different polysaccharides.
    • amylose
    • amylopectin
  • Both of the above are polymers of glucose.
  • insoluble, compact starch molecules are an ideal way of storing glucose.
  • starch is only found in plant cells.
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