BH - Britain and Ireland

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Home Rule Act granted limited self government pass in 1914 but suspended due to WW1

1922 Ireland was partitioned between N.I and Irish Free State which occured because of a failed armed rebellion against British rule by Nationalists in Dublin 1916

Irish Free State to Republic of Ireland in 1949, Irish politicians attempted to weaken links with the British empire

Eamon de Valera introduced a new constitution creating an independant republic, and claimed N.I was a part of a united Ireland

N.I. received Home Rule, 1921-1972 dominated by Ulster Unionist Party, predominantly Protestant... By 1968 discriminated Catholic civil rights became more prominent

Sectarian violence in 1969, British troops sent for law and order... 1972 N.I. parliament suspended and ruled directly from Westminster

IRA & Loyalist paramilitary groups engaged in guerilla warfare

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Political Parties of N.I.

Ulster Unionist Party - wanted union w/ UK, signed Good Friday agreement and moderate

Sinn Fein - Associated w/ demand for Irish republic in 1916, opposed parliamentary representation in Westminster in 1919, 1922 it opposed Irish Free State which was part of Britains dominion, 

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Problems w/ Ulster

Hole Rule Act gave Ireland self governance within the United Kingdom

North East Ireland had a protestant/unionist majority opposed to home rule

1912 Ulster Unionists formed UVF oppose to home rule

During WW1 Ireland was on the brink of civil war

Nationalists formed Irish Volunteers who were outnumbered by UVF

UVF volunteered for the British Army preventing an armed clash

Asquith promised to introduce the 'Amending Bill' excluding N.I. from Home Rule

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Easter Rising of 1916

UVF allowed to form own division within British Army... Irish Volunteers wern't granted same priviledge

Leader of Irish Nationalist Party denied position as British army officer

Sir Carson (leader of Irish Unionists) joined cabinet

Irish Republican Brotherhood were a violent group earlier referred to as fenians - they led an uprising in 1916 off volunteers but failed

British authorities executed 16 leaders, but pragmatically released rebel prisoners in hopes of not alienating Irish-Americans

British government attempted to introduce military conscription on Ireland, Nationalists & Republicans campaigned against this

Lloyd George Irish Convention aimed at solving problems, were boycotted by Republicans & Unionists

Irish Republicans in 1918 wron 73/106 seats in Ireland, in 1919 they set up a parliament in Dublin - attempting to create an independant state

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Irish Free State

1919-1921 referred to as War of Independance, the IRA fought against armed police forces, the Royal Irish constabulary and the British Army - IRA masterminded by Michael Collins (Minister of Finance in Dublins parliament)

Government of Ireland Act (1920) - 2 home rule parliaments and governments would be established, one for N.I. and one for EIRE - in 1921 elections Sinn Fein gained a majority and refused to accept this act

The Royal Irish Constabulary reinforced by two groups of volunteer forces from Britain - 'the Auxilaries' and 'Black and Tans' - engaged in reprisal raids as retalitation for IRA attacks... This policy by Britain was unpopular in the USA and Libs/Labs of UK, PM Lloyd George called a ceasefire w/ IRA 

Dec 1921 agreement signed w/ Sinn Fein in London, Arthurt Griffits & Michael Collins accepted the creation of a self governing state outside the UK but part of the British Empire (Irish Free State)

Boundary Commission would study the border between Irish Free State and N.I., Michael Collins believe the commission would grant IFS parts of N.I. forcing N.I. into a united Irish State

Anglo-Irish treaty in 1921 upset two extremes, Conservatives disagreed w/ the breakup and the Irish Republicans led by Eamon de Valera opposed to staying in the British Empire (notably he was informed by Lloyd George in private negotiations this is best he could offer) - explaining why he never led negotiation teams in 1921

Split over Anglo-Irish treaty led to a civil war, in 1923 Free State Forces defeated Republican forces - Michael Collins the PM of the Irish Free State was killed in an ambush

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Creation of EIRE

Michael Collins claiimed Anglo-Irish treaty gave 'freedom to achieve freedom' the Irish Free State would eventually lead to a independant Irish State

Imperical Conference of 1926 the 'Balfour Declaration' gave dominions of empire full internal self governance - Statute of Westminster (1931) self governing dominions declared independant states held together with common alliegance to British Monarch (commonwealth)

Eamon de Valera in 1932 became PM of Irish Free State, he severed political links w/ Britain, abolishing Oath of Alleigance to British Crown forced on Irish MPs

Governor-General position (Monarchs representative in Commonwealth countries) to Ireland reduced significantly, de Valera nominated the obscure Buckley to this post 

de Valera abolished right of the Irish to send legal cases to Judicial Committee of the Privy Council

1937 de Valera introduced a new constitution, the free state became EIRE - Governor-General position abolished and replaced by an elected president - Imperial Conference of 1937 it was declared EIRE didnt change Irelands links w/ British Commonwealth ... it was 'a republic in all but name'

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EIRE and WW2

EIRE stayed neutral, Chamberlain signed Anglo-Irish agreement with de Valera resulting in the end of a trade war 

Britain handed over to EIRE 'Treaty Ports' of Cork Harbour, Bere Haven & Lough Swilly - all could've potentially been utlised as naval bases

Malcolm McDonald, son of Ramsay - in 1940 was sent to Dublin and de Valera was offered unification of Ireland if they enter Allied war - de Valera refused on the basis that N.I. government wasn't consulted - and PM Churchill wouldnt honour the agreement

Britain considered military intevention to occupy EIRE, this was ruled out by the Cabinet Committee as it would alienate American opinion and cause a guerilla war in EIRE

^ German and Japanese embassies were still functioning in EIRE in 1944 - Britain feared Germans would discover D-Day landings

EIRE neutrality distanced them from Britain, Churchills V.I. speech references problems caused by Irish neutrality and de Valera signed condolescences at German Embassy regarding Hitlers death

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Creation of Republic of Ireland

1948 EIRE PM Constello declared EIRE would become an independant Republic, relationships remained intact as Ireland Act (1949) Irish Citizens retained rights within UK

Unlike other 'aliens' or non citizens, Irish could stand for British parliament, vote in British elections if residents, join British armed forces/police


NZ/Aussies lobbied British overnment to not change the status of Irish citizens in the UK,

With elections due in 1949 the feared the effects of change on policy on a large Irish electorates in both countries

India became independant in 1947 but remained in commonwealth, India planned on declaring itself a republic - to keep them as a republic in the commonwealth, relations with Ireland wern't changed

Ireland Act stated no attempt would be made to alter the constitutional position of N.I. without N.I. peoples consent, Unionists had a majoirty in N.I. (66%) - creating 'Unionist veto'

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