Berlioz - Harold In Italy: movement III

Form, Melody, Harmony/Tonality, Texutre, Rhythm, Instrumentation.

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Harmony/Tonality

  • C major throughout with limited modulation.
  • Perfect cadences: bar 46.
  • Only definitive modulation is to D minor: bar 97-115.
  • Modal inflections include the use of the flattened 7th B flat: bar 15.
  • 4-3 suspension: bar 40-41.
  • half diminished 7th chord: bar 44.
  • chromatic upper auxiliary note: bar 78.
  • secondary dominant chord - V7 of IV: bar 15.
  • Section B (bar 32) is characterised by tonal variety and more complex harmony.
  • consistent tonic and dominant pedals: bar 1-31.
  • 22 of the first 31 bars are made up of chords I and V. 
  • Imperfect cadence: bar 59. (in C major)
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Texture

  • Melody-dominated homophony prevails: bar 4-20.
  • Double drone pedals on tonic and dominant, representing Italian folk-like bagpipes: bar 1-31.
  • Salterello rhythmic figure representing pifferari musicians: bar 4.
  • Allegretto section: bar 32 is characterised by sudden textural changes = bar 48-52: melody played in octaves on double reed instruments, clarinet plays broken chords, functional bass by bassoons
  • Counterpoint: bar 53 between woodwind and strings
  • Antiphonal-like dialogue between cor anglais/oboe, clarinet, flute/piccolo and bassoons (bar 79)
  • Monophonic statement of serenade theme: bar 202-206
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Form

Ternary, tripartite structure - ABA (with extended Coda)

idee fixe - obsessively used thematic idea that represents Harold: bar 65 (used in other movements)

Section A: bar 1-31  =   salterello theme characterises this section with double drone pedals on tonic and dominant (represent bagpipes and pifferari musicians)

Section B: bar 32-135   =   serenade theme differentiates this as a new section - bar 34. Idee fixe is superimposed on serenade material from bar 65

Section A: bar 136-165   =   folk-like salterello dance rhythms return indicating a recapitulation, basically a repeat of bar 1-30

Extended Coda = return of previously used melodic elements with salterello rhythms, serenade theme and idee fixe (now in flute and harp harmonics)

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Melody

idee fixe played in double-stop octaves: bar 65 (solo viola)

diatonic (bar 4-30)

salterello theme characterised by many folk-like traits - conjunct movement, range of a 9th but no interval greater than a 3rd, modal hue of Bb in bar 17

serenade theme - arpeggio figure and makes use of falling 3rds and falling 6ths (bar 35)

chromatic writing: bar 50-51

idee fixe (marked by 'Theme de l'Adagio'): bar 65 consists of a falling 3rd

lombardic rhythms (short-long): bar 57

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Instrumentation

unorthodox combination of instruments e.g. harp harmonics and flute playing the idee fixe: bar 167

idiomatically conceived - pizzicato used: bar 32

double stopping (solo viola playing idee fixe): bar 65

the piccolo and oboe combination playing salterello rhythms designed to represent Italian folk musicians known as the pifferari

double pedal notes on I and V resemble Italian folk bagpipes

clarinet uses very low register with broken-chord figures: bar 48

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Rhythm

compound duple time

energetic salterello dance rhythms against long pedal notes: bar 4

syncopation: bar 37-38

triplet semiquavers: bar 77

rhythmic complexity differentiates section B

lombardic rhythms (short-long): bar 57

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