Berlioz, Harold in Italy

Main features of Berlioz

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  • Conjunct movement with a narrow range
  • Movement composed of 3rds
  • Focus on 'E'
  • Inversion of motifs
  • Repetition of motifs
  • One bar cells create irregular phrase lengths
  • Sequence
  • Modal features (Bb)
  • Grace notes (ornamental, folk music)
  • Arpeggic serenade figure, with reordered motifs of the idee fixe
  • Auxiliary A
  • Characteristic falling 3rds and 6ths
  • Irregular phrase lengths - 7,7,4,7
  • Doubling of melodies in octaves
  • Melodies become more chromatic from 53
  • Serenade theme features in the horns
  • Idee fixe in full occurs in the viola
  • Idee fixe appears in the flute, doubled by the harp at 167
  • Serenade theme is fragmented in the final section
  • Saltarello is also fragmented
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  • Double pedal drone on the tonic and dominant
  • Features an F chord at 14, and G7 chord at 19
  • Functional harmony with cadences
  • C major broken chord with tonic pedal
  • Imperfect cadence at 39, also featuring a 4-3 suspension
  • Diminished 7th chord at 41
  • Harmony starts to become more chromatic
  • Secondary 7th features at 74
  • C major triads at the end
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Rhythm and Metre

  • 6/8 time - compound duple
  • Saltarello rhythms feature
  • Dotted rhythms
  • Stress is placed on the 2nd beat
  • Allegretto is half the speed of the opening saltarello
  • Semiquaver motif features at 48
  • Idee fixe features longer notes than previous, with dotted minims
  • Serenade theme features a hemiola, with a 3/4 feel
  • Hemiola is decorated with triplets at 77 and also later on
  • All rhythmic elements feature at 166
  • Here, the viola is double speed
  • Rhythmic augmentation of the melody features at 192
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Texture and Instrumentation

  • Melody and drone at the opening
  • Mostly melody-dominated homophony
  • Viola countermelody
  • Octave doubling of the melody
  • Violas are divided
  • Piccolo and harp were unusual to use at the time
  • Broken chord in clarinets at 48
  • 53 features a melody, a countermelody in octaves and a 3rd inner part in horns
  • Horn call in 3rds and 6ths at 60
  • Viola uses double stopping
  • 80 features antiphonal exchanges (dialogue) between parts
  • Monophonic viola passage at the end
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  • The piece begins in C major and continues in C major in the Serenade
  • There are modal elements in the Saltarello
  • The piece modulates to G major at around 89
  • It modulates to D minor at 100
  • It modulates back to C major at 120 and remains in C major until the end
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