- Berlin was a divided city - half bizonia-France,Britain,USA and half USSR.
- Angered USSR as Berlin was in East Germany-they wanted it to be communist.
- USA wanted it is as a "beacon of democracy" surrounded by communist states.
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- Tension further increased in 1958 when Khrushchev issued an ultimatum over Berlin to force the west out.
- Kennedy elected in 1961-Khrushchev saw him as in inexperienced leader
- Experienced workers and trade specialists and teachers were leaving the east for the west.
- In 1961 a fence was put up over the border later to be the Berlin wall
- All connection, and trasport links were cut of.
- Major Flash point, as the to super powers were at risk of a nuclear war
- Kennedy " better a wall than a war"
- Fist physical sign of the cold war
- Remained a symbol of the cold war
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