The bonding and structure of benzene was a puzzle for a long time because:
- Benzene was more stable than expected.
- Reacted to substitution than addition.
- All the carbon atoms were equivalent, which implied that all the carbon-carbon bonds are the same.
Structure and Bonding of Benzene
- The carbon atoms are bonded by alpha-bond.
- Molecular ordital shaped like a doughnut, above and below the ring, extending over all six carbon atoms.
- This has been made by the overlap of p-orbital-one from each carbon atom.
- The electrons in this orbital are delocalised and form a pie-orbital.
- Delocalisation means electrons are spread over more than two atoms-in this case the six carbon atoms that form the ring.
- Each carbon atom has 3 electrons making it an intermediate between a single and a double bond.
1 of 1