BEHAVIOURISTS- operant conditioning

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Operant conditioning

= voluntary behaviour that we have control over. Our organism acts and our actions have consequences. Skinner says 'our behaviour can be shaped and maintained by its consequences'

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Types of reinforcement

-Positive.. anything that strengthens behaviour ie increases likelihood of occurring again, usually something pleasant. - Negative .. the removal of something unpleasant that strengthens behaviour . - Punishment... weakens behaviour by either removing something pleasant or give something assertive. - Continuous..reinforcer given after every correct response. - Partial .. scheduled reinforcement

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Types of Partial reinforement

- Fixed interval.. given after fixed period of time - Variable interval...given after average period fo time - Fixed ratio...given after fixed number of correct responses - Variable interval..given after an average number of correct responses

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Extinction

- behaviour occurs when behaviour ceases to be emitted. in OC removal of the positive reinforcement usually results, after a period of time, in the behaviour being extinguishes. However,with neg reinforcement, behaviour is less readily extinguished and they take a considerable period of time to become so

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Different reinforces

-Primary reinforces.. something like food and water. its geared to the needs of the person being reinforced. - Secondary reinforces.. NS has been paired with primary reinforcer. NS then becomes secondary reinforcer

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Different types of negative reinforcement

-Escape learning is negative consequence is there so you do desirable behaviour to get rid of it -Avoidance learning is.. anticipating the negative consequence so do desirable behaviour before negative consequence

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