Behaviourist Explanation- A01
Classical conditioning- Behaviour is learnt through a stimulus. A stimulus results in a physiological reaction. Eg Little Albert conducted by Watson and Raynor in 1920.
E.g Fear of heights - If they feel sick at high places they will associate heights with nausea.
Operant Conditioning- Skinner(1974) behaviour is influenced by consequences of our actions in + and - reinforcement.
+ encouraging someone through a reward.
- Encouraging someone by taking away unpleasantness.
E.g Childhood aggression is reinforced, likely to be repeated.
Social learning theory- Bandura suggests if we watch behaviour we will be able to recall it and replicate it. Motivated by reinforcements we will imitate and repeat behaviour.
E.g If a child sees a model who is rewarded for behaviour, leads to imitation. Some phobias develope due to seeing someone else respond to the stimulus.
Behaviourist Explanation- A02
2 supporting points for behaviourist explanation.
1. Focuses on behaviour- Over comes the ethical issue of being labelled 'abnormal' instead sees the behaviour as adaptive.
2. Focuses on functioning- If there is no harm to the individual or others, then there is no reason to label them with a 'mental disorder'.
2 criticisms for behaviourist explanation.
1. Ignores the causes- 'symptom situation' ignores the causes of the illness and just looks at the symptoms.
2. Reductionist- reduces complex behaviours down to narrow terms. Ignores biology, emotion and thinking.