Beethoven's Symphony No. 1, Movement 2

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Texture - 1st Subject

  • Bars 1 - 15: fugal entry of 1st subject
    Tonal entry at 6
    False entries at 10/11
    Real entries at 12
    - RECAP: 1st subject overlaps descending violin phrase, cello countermelody, Melody in octaves, colours of woodwind exploited and doubled in 3rds and 6ths.
  • Bars 16 - 26: thick textures created by tutti orchestra and dominant pedal in horns.
    - RECAP: woodwind now in 3rds and 6ths, busyer bass line now doubled by bassoon
  • Bars 26 - 34: Linking section
    Thin texture, strings with woodwind and brass colour
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Texture - 2nd Subject

  • 2nd subject in flutes and oboes, sparce string bassline, antecedent and consequent strings 42 - 49
    RECAP: Very similar texture
  • Bar 42 - 52: building texture, woodwind instruments entering syncopated chords, chromaticallyrising sequence
    String bassline switches to join chords, increasing texture
    RECAP: Tutti texture, horns join chords, woodwind all enter suddenly at once at 146
  • Codetta: tripleted flute melody doubled by violin 1
    G pedal in timpani and horns, tutti chords created duple time feel
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Texture - Development

  • Bars 62 - 70: sparse texture due to pianissimo, sparse timbres of oboe and violin
    70 - 80: thick texture, string bassline, sforzando
    imitation in flutes, oboe and bassoon
  • Bars 81 - 93: building texture
  • CODA: Thick texture until 190 when suddenly sparse texture for light hearted cadence
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Rhythm - Exposition

  • 1st subject: Bar 3 rhythmic motif introduced
    semiquaver demisemiquaver rhythm developed 19 - 26
  • 2nd subject: 42 - 46 syncopated dotted ostinato in strings
    49 - 52: syncopated chords
  • Codetta: rhythm motif in timpani and triplet meldoy in flute and violin 1
    chords make duple timemetre and set up 2 bar melody
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Harmony - Exposition

  • 1st Subject: F Major, motif based on tonic triad
    Dominant of C from 16 - 22 in horns
    RECAP: inverted dominant pedal in flute from 105, emphasis on tonic, colours of wind instruments are fully exploited, woodwinds doubling in 3rdsand 6ths, bassoon tonic pedal
  • Linking passage: D minor modulation, extra woodwind and horn colour added
  • 2nd Subject: C Major to D Minor
    Bars 45 - 46: cadential 6/4 cadence in C
    Bars 49 - 52: Sequential modulation before repeating repeating 45/46 pattern

    RECAP: Transposed up a perfect 4th so that it stays in F Major 
  • Codetta: G pedal supported by dominant notes in timpani, horns and trumpets 
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Harmony - Development

  • C Major harmony instantly compromised by C Minor inclusion
     Bar 70: sudden modulation to Db Major the flattened supertonic
  • Bars 71 - 76: alternates between Db Major and Ab7
  • Bar 81 - 93: Italian augmented 6 then dominant C pedal as melody explores F Minor
    woodwind colours are explored in sequence 
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  • Bars 1 - 7: First subject introduced into a fugal introduction
  • Bars 34 - 42: Second subject introduced by flute and oboe with chromatic string decoration
  • Codetta: tripleted flute and violin staccato melody line, 2 beat phrasing created by string and woodwind chords
  • beginning refers to opening notes but in the dominant minor
    Oboe is melancholy and significant, mysterious tone
  • Bar 71: flute and oboe dialogue based on the rising intervals of opening but augmented by pitch
    Bar 77: conversation gets closer together as the spaces between diminute
  • Bar 81: chords in sequence
  • Bar 94: solo violin linking melody
  • RECAPITULATION: Development and recap overlap
    New violin countermelody, melody played in octaves, fugue subject in 3rds and 6ths harmony
  • instead of ending codetta with repeated F's, Beethoven ends with a repeated 1st subject with decoration
  • CODA: Overlaps with recap
  •  171: second subject a tone higher, with added chromaticism
  • 175: 6th bar from theme used in a modulating sequence
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