Basic Textile Facts

These revision card are the basic facts for all aspects of Textile Technology.

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  • Created by: cal
  • Created on: 12-05-11 09:17

The three divisions of the textile industry are...

1) Apparel (clothing)

2) Interiors (Home furnishings)

3) Industrial (geotextiles, medical textiles)

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Why should labels be placed on garments (clothing)

To protect the consumer/business person.

Legal requirement.

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What should a label tell a consumer?

  • Product specifications
  • Care of the product
  • Size
  • The manufacturer
  • Fibre content
  • country of origin

Remember a wash care label is there are guidance and is placed by the manufacturer it is not law to have these on a product.

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What are the segments of Textiles? There are 5

1) Fibres

2) Yarns

3) Fabrics

4) Dyes/Prints

5) Finishes

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What is a fibre?

Smallest unit, fine hair like structure (substance).

It can be natural or manmade.

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What is a yarn?

A yarn is composed of fibres that are spun together. Spinning adds twist to the fibre that locks the fibres together. A yarn can be Z or S twisted.

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What is a fabric?

A fabric is a material/cloth.

Fabrics can be woven, knitted or non woven.

Yarns are used to weave or knit fabrics.

Fibres are used to create non wovens where they are bonded with glue/heat or needle punched together to form a batt.

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What are Dyes/Prints?

Dyes are liquid colours that are applied to fabric, yarn or fibres. They are absorbed by the material and sealed through drying and heat.

Prints are for designs placed onto fabrics. They are thicker in viscosity, and sit on the surface of a material.

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What is a finish?

A finish is a chemical added to the fabric to make it behave a certain way.

A finish can be added at the fibre stage of production also.

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What is an importer?

An importer buys goods from foreign mills and brings them to the UK.

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what is a jobber?

A jobber buys goods from mills/anywhere and sells at retail.

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What is retail?

Retail means over the counter sales.

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Two reasons to import fabrics......

  • low wages (cheap)
  • superior goods.
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What is exclusivity?

Designs/products that belong to a design house, that no-one can use or copy.

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Designing fabrics begin about............years bef


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What are the two main sources of fibres

  • Natural - animals and plants
  • Synthetic - chemical  (non renewable sources Coal/Oil)
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Name a natural fibre.....

  • cotton
  • linen
  • wool
  • silk
  • cashmere
  • mohair
  • ramie
  • jute
  • hemp
  • sisal
  • coir
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what are manufactured fibres? (synthetics)

Man made fibres are created from chemicals in test tubes.

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What is a staple fibre?

Short fibres, which are measured in inches, such as cotton, woorl and linen. NOT silk

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What is a filament fibre?

Long fibres, measured in yards.

Silk and all synthetics are filament in length.

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What is crimp?

Bends and twists along the length of the fibre.

Crimp makes clothes hug the body, makes them warmer and they are more absorbent.

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What are the three fibre performance properties?

1) Hydrophilic (Water loving)

2) Hydrophobic (Water hating)

3) Thermoplastic

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What is absorbency?

The ability to take in moisture.

Important for skin comfort, prevents static build up.

Shrinks more, but washes well. BUT wrinkles more than non absorbent fibres

Having absorbency allows the fibres to become water repllant - as chemicals can be absorbed into the fibre that keep the water off yoru clothes.

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Why is an absorbent fabric a good fibre for summer

  • keeps you cool
  • absorbs perspiration
  • dries quickly
  • cooling effect
  • no static
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Why is an absorbent fibre easy to clean?

Naturally allows it to absorb water and detergent and penetrates the fibres easily.

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How does elasticity affect a fabric?

Elasticity is the ability of a fibre to stretch and return to its orginal position.

Anything with stretch will fit better and be more comfortable.

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What does pilling do to a fabric?

Short fibres break through the surface of the fabric, which weakens the fabric.

It creates balls of fibres on the surface which also makes it look unattractive.

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what type of fibre melts and softens when exposed


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What would a thermoplastic fibre be useful for?

seamless bras or anything molded

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What are the 4 main natural fibres?

1) Cotton

2) Wool

3) Linen

4) Silk

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Where does cotton come from?

The cotton plant, they are the seed pod fibres.

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Linen comes from where?

It is a bast fibre that comes from the stem of a flax plant.

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What are the good properties of cotton?

  • strong
  • abrasion resistant
  • dries quickly
  • comfortable in hot weather
  • cool
  • washable
  • drycleanable
  • no static
  • no pilling
  • dyes well. (absorbent)
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what are the by products of coton?

short fibres called "linters" are used in stuffing and filters

The seeds of the plant are used in fertilisers

Oil from the seeds are used in cooking oils  and margarines.

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I was trying to find a way to revise for textiles, but I couldn't find any until I found this! This is really, really useful. Thank you.

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