Bacteria

Bacteria Identification

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Staphylococcus

-non-motile

-commonly found in the human mouth and skin.  get into food, they can release toxins that can cause food poisoning.

-cause infection of wounds in the skin.

staphylococcus aureus 

(http://dc263.4shared.com/doc/_iURHDfm/preview_html_m31f3378d.jpg)

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Streptococcus

chain-forming bacteria are commonly found in the mouths of humans,

-ause strep throat and bacterial pneumonia

- also responsible for Scarlet Fever

(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4d/Streptococcus_mutans_Gram.jpg)

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Bacillus ssp

- used in molecular research because of their relatively large size and ease of use.

- Anthrax, is caused by inhaling or ingesting the spores of B. anthracis (causes respiratory collapse) 

Bracillus antracis 

(http://textbookofbacteriology.net/B.anthracis1.jpeg)

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Spirillum volutans

cluster of flagella

contains carb storing grandules 

(http://classconnection.s3.amazonaws.com/181/flashcards/2581181/jpg/spirillum_volutans1361769557122.jpg)

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Escherichia coli

-responsible for tons of food borne illnesses 

has little flagella on the ends around it

(http://janiceatmeredith.files.wordpress.com/2012/01/escherichia-coli2.jpg)

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Pseudomonas aeruginosa

new one, not really classified according to cocci, bacilli, etc.

- this bacterium is often found on and in medical equipment, including catheters, causing cross-infections in hospitals and clinics.

-It is implicated in hot-tub rash.

-able to decompose hydrocarbons and has been used to break down tarballs and oil from oil spills

(http://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/images/thumb/b/b6/Pseudomonas_aeruginosa.jpg/200px-Pseudomonas_aeruginosa.jpg)

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Nostoc

composed of filaments called "trichomes" surrounded by a thin sheath.

They can fix atmospheric nitrogen, making them good candidates for environments with low nitrogen rates. 

 genus' unique adaptations which allow them to survive and even thrive in extreme environments. 

-photosynthesizers which use cytoplasmic photosynthetic pigments rather than chloroplasts

- single-celled

-lack a nucleus

-their cytoplasm is composed 70%-85% of water. ,

-are motile by a swaying motion, not flagella 

(http://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/images/thumb/5/5c/NOSTOC.jpg/325px-NOSTOC.jpg) 

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Saprolengia

-grows on dead vegetable matter in the water.

form sexual spores (oospores) in oogonia. Notice that there can be several oospores in a single oogonium.

- fish's immune system becomes compromised by environmental pollution, this oppportunistic fungal-like organs can parasitize the fish. 

know all functions. antheridium (male gametes), uses hyphae like fungi to hold zoospores ( asexual sperm spores) 

(http://o.quizlet.com/i/jBFs2IkN63DCH1PjJGRx6w_m.jpg)

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Oscillatori

-movements in the colonies can slide back and forth against each other until the whole mass is reoriented to its light source

filamentous organisms - trichomes (chains of connected cells) are straight to loosely sinuous near the apices;  onstrictions may or may not occur at cross-walls. Colour is variable (Bright blue-green to deep red to almost black). Heterocysts order Oscillatoriales which all filamentous cyanobacteria that only produce vegetative cells. They do not produce Heterocysts (non-photosynthetic cells that fix nitrogen) Staining Gram-negative. 

(http://www.enasco.com/prod/images/products/FD/AC096701l.jpg)

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Gleocapsa

-particular type of cyanobacteria is responsible for creating black stains and streaks on roofs.

 -show the black stains as the cyanobacteria develop their dark and hard UV-protective outer coating.


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Rhizobium

-soil bacteria that fix nitrogen (diazotrophs) after becoming established inside root nodules of legumes (Fabaceae).

-Rhizobia require a planthost; they cannot independently fix nitrogen. In general, they are Gram-negativemotile, non-sporulating rods.

(http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/imgfeb01/rhiz02a.jpg)

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Anabaena

-cyanobacteria 

-heterocyst-forming, photoautotrophic cyanobacteria that perform oxygenic photosynthesis. 

-grow in long filaments of vegetative cells.

-Heterocysts supply neighboring cells with fixed nitrogen in return for the products of photosynthesis, that they can no longer perform.

 

--separation of functions is essential because the nitrogen fixing enzyme in heterocysts, nitrogenase, is unstable in the presence of oxygen. 

(http://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/images/a/a1/Heterocyst.jpg) Anabaena. The arrow points to a heterocyst From from: University of Wisconsin

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