Define- Respiration? What isnt respiration? Where does it happen? Whats the process? Whats this process do? What are the types of respiration?
When does aerobic respiration happen? what does it release more than anaerobic? What type do you use the most? what does it turn into what? what does it release? whats the equation?
Whats ATP? what does it carry? where to? what does energy from anaerobic and aerobic used to produce? How does it carry energy?
Respiraion if the process of releasing energy from glucose which happens constantly in every cell, its not breathing, it happens in every cell, releasing energy from glucose,builds up larger molecules contracts muscles and maintains a steady body temp, aerobic and anaerobic,
If theres enough oxygen available, it release more energy per gloucose molecule than anaerobic, aerobic, it turns glucose from your food and oxygen in your lungs into carbon dioxide and water, releases loads of energy, glucose + oxygen= carbon dixoide +water (+energy released)
Is a small molecule that easily transported around cells, energy released during respirtation to where its needed, its used to produce ATP, is synthesised from another molecule (ADP) using the energy released by the breakdown of gluclose during respiration then ATP moves around to the part of the cell that requries energy then its broken down to ADP and this releases energy where its needed
What happens when you exercise? so what do you need more of? where does it come from? this increase of respiration means you need more what where? What does your body increase to do this?
Whats the measure of heart rate? how do you take it? whats the normal heart rate? why does it vary?
What happens to blood when heart rate increases? Whens the blood at its highest? what is this pressure? Whens it at its lowest? whats this? Hows it measured? whats the normal range between?
What cant happen in vigourous exercise? What happens instead? why isnt it the best way to use glucose? whatd does it also produce? Whats the advantage? Whats the formula?
After exercise and anaerobic respiration what do you have? what is it? How does your body do this? Wheres it broken down? why does your heart rate have to stay high?
Your muscles contract frequently, so your body needs more energy (atp), this comes from increased respiration, you need more oxygen and glucose in the cells, your breathing rate increases to get more oxygen in the blood and so does your heart rate to get the glucose and oxygenated blood to the cells quicker and also to remove CO2 quicker,
Pulse rate, place two fingers on their wrist or neck and count the number of pulses (hearbeats) felt in a minute, normally for an adult is 60-80 beats/min, varys due to fitness level and resting heart rate
The pressure increases, when the heart contracts called systolic pressure and lowest when the heart relaxes called diastolic pressure,blood pressure is measured styolic/diastolic, between 120/80 and 100/60
Your body cant get enough oxygen to your muscles for aerobic respiration despite the fact your heart rate and breathing rate increase as much as they can, your muscles start respiring anaerobically, it releases less energy as it only partially breaks down glucose and produces lactic acid, you can keep on using your muscles, glucose=lactic acid (+energy released)
Youll have oxygen debt, this is extra oxygen needed to break down lactic acid in the muscles, you breathe hard ater exercising, broken down in muscles and liver, you heart rate stays high to carry the lactic acid and extra oxuygen required to break it around the body quicker
Blood and Blood Typing
Whats the fluid blood made up? whats there job?
In surgeory or accident what do you need when you lose blood? Wheres the blood come from? Whats differs in blood? what can you be? What do the letters refer to? whats an antigen?
What can red blood cells have on their surface? what can blood plasma contain? whats an antibody? What happens if anti-a meets A or anti-B meets B? What done to avoid this?
Draw a table with the blood type, antigen, antibody, can give blood to, can get blood from for all for types
Red blood cells- job to transport oxygen from the lungs to all the cells in the body, White Blood cells- fight infection by protecting the body against microorganisms, Plasma- the liquid that carries everything about, Platelets- small fragments of cells that help the blood to clot at the site of a wound
Blood transufion, from a blood donor, different blood types or groups, you can be A, B, AB, O, they refer to the antigens on the surface of a persons red blood cell, an antigen is a substance that can trigger a response from a persons immune system,
Red blood cells can have A or B antigens (neither or both) on their surface, blood plasma can have anti-A or anti B antibodies, anitbodies are proteins produced by the immune system, the blood will clot, so people are tested and matched
Inheritance of Blood Types
Whats an allele? Whats ABO blood type determined by? what are the alleles for what type?
What are some alleles like? what does this mean for the phenotype?
So in ABO blood types which alleles are co-dominate and which one is recessive to what?
Whats genotype? whats pheontype?
Because 1o is recessive how many alleles of it do you need for bloody type O? Draw the table with blood type and alleles?
What can couples use to work out the possible blood types of there kids? Draw one for parents with blood type A and B?
Different versions of the same gene, determined by a single gene that has three alleles, 1o is for blood type O, 1a is the allele for blood type A and 1b is the allele for blood type b
Some alles are co-dominate, the phenotype is a mix of characteristics from both alleles
1a and 1 b are co dominate with 1o being recessive to 1a and 1b,
Gentoype- is what alleles you have and pheontyope- is what the characteristics you have
The Circulatory system
What circulatory system do humans have? what does it mean? what does the first one do, where to? What does the second one do, where to?
List how the bood moves in and out of the heart? why is the left ventricle thicker? what do the semi-lunar, truscip and bicuspid valves do?
What do artieries branch into? what are thye? what type of wal do they have? what does this mean? what are a netowrk of capillaries called? what happens as blood passes through capiary beds? name two waste chemicals what do they do? what does the tissue fluid allow?
Double circulatory system, it has two circuits joined together, the first one pumps dexoygenated blood to the lungs to take in oxygen then it returns to the heart, the second one pumps oxygenated blood around the body the blood gives up its oxygen at the body ces and the deoxygenated blood returns to the heart to be pumped to the lungs
The right atrium of the heart recieves dexoygenated bood from the body throiugh the vena cava, then the deoxygenated blood moves through the right ventircle and is pumped to the ungs via the pumonary artery, the left atrium recives oxygenated blood from the ungs through the lungs through the pumomary vein then the oxygenated blood moves through the left ventrice which pumps it around the whole body via the aorta, its thicker because it needs more mucles as it pumps blood around the whole body whereas the right is just to the lungs, they prevent the backflow of blood the same reason why veins have valves
Capilliares which are tiny blood vessels, they permeable walls meaning subsatnces can diffuse in and out, capilary beds, small molecules like water, glucose and oxygen are forced out of the capillairs to form tissue fuid which surround the cell then they can diffuse out of the fuid into the cell, carbon dixoide and urea which diffuse out of the cels into the tissue fluid then into the capilliary, allows cells to get substances they need in and waste out without the capilary supplying every cell
Pyramids of Numbers and Biomass
Whats each stage of a food chain called? what does a bar show on a pyramid of numbers? what goes at the bottom? what typically happens as you go up the pyramid of numbers? why? whats the advanatge of pyramid of numbers? whats wrong with them?
What does a bar show on a pyramid of biomass? whats the advanatge of pyramid of biomass? whats wrong with them?
Trophic level, the total number of organisms at that level, the organism at the bottom of the food chain usualyl a producer, the number of orgaanisms goes down, because bigger organisms eat lots of smaller organisms, they are simple to produce, they can be misleading
Shows the mass of living material at that stage so how much all the organisms at each level would weigh if they were all together,they give an accurate indicaitoon of the amount of energy at each level, however they dont show the number of organisms in aech layer
Energy Transfer and Flow
Where is the source of energy for nearly all life on earth? What do plants use a small amount of the light energy from the sun to make? where is it stored? whats an autotroph? what happens when an animal eats a plant? what is a heterotroph? what do they rely on?
Name a decomposer? what do they feed of? whats this another way of? why does energy pass out at eacht trophic level? why isnt the energy that passes out of the food chaina available to the next level? How does energy pass out between each torphic level? what does this mean? why?
What happenns the energy available to the next level? whats the formula for efficeny of energy transfer?
From the sun,food, stored in the chemiclas that make up the plants cells, are organisms that can are able to produce their own food, it takes in the energy stored by the plant, organisms that gain energy in this way are hetertrophs as they cant convert the suns energy into food, they rey on autotrophs
Bacteria and fungi, they feed on dead animals and plants and animal droppiings, this another way energy is transfered, energy is used in respiration which powers all life and some energy is lost to the surroundings as heat and some in anima poo, because when it passes out it isnt made into biomass, some material isnt eat like bones so the energy stored there isnt past, it measns you never get more than five trophiuc levels seeing as so much energy is lost theres not enough to support
Decreases, %efficeny=energy available to the next level/ energy that was available to the previous level
Biomass in Soil
What are the four components of mud?
Why would someone need to find the amount of water in a plant?
What are the steps for calculating the amount of water in soil?
Whats the steps for calculating the amount of biomass in soil?
Inorganic material- which includes broken rock (mineral particles) and mineral ions dissolved in water and the soil, Biomass- living and dead organic matter many orgnaims live in the soil like worms, insects, bacteria, you also find dead matter called humus which consist of dead worms insects dead vegetation, Water-retained on the surfaces of the mineral particles which is vital for growing plants, Air- contained in the tiny spaces between the minerla particles and the oxygen is vitl for the repsiration of soil animals an plant roots
Its important for plant growth so farmers may need to know
weigh a dish, put a smaple of soil in the dish and weigh the whole thing (dish +soil) then heat the dish and soil in an oven between 90 and 110 degrees to ecvaportae all the water without bruning the organic matter, repeat the heating and wighing until the weight doesnt go down any more so you know all the water has gone, calcualte the percentgage mass of water in the soil
Do the method to remove all the water then heat the saamoke strongly in a crucible over a bunsen burner to burn of the biomass, cool it weght and heat again until the mass stays constant, record the final weight then calculate the percentage of biomass
What is symbiosis? What are the different symbiotic relationships whats there impact? Give examples for commensalism?
What do parasites have that enabe them to be successful in their host? what are the examples explain them?
How can parasites affect us?
Whats the evolotuion of a parasite though to be linked to? why?
In the natural enviroment some organisms of different species live together in close contact with each other , commensalism where the relationship where one organism benefits but the host is neither helped nor harmed the other is parasitism where in the close assosiation one organism benefits i.e. the parasite and the other is harmed i.ee the host, relationship between a hermitcrab and a organism found attactedh to it called a hydroid, the hydroid obtains food from the crab so the hydroid benefits but the crab neither benefits or loses other ones are when the organism uses the host as a form of transportation or shelter
Specific features, tapeworm-they cause disease in humans and theyre adapted to absorbed the digested food in the intestines of humans so they have a large surface area so digested food can move into their body by diffusion it also has hooks or suckers which help them attach and hold on to the walls of the intestine, the tapeworm doesnt have an intestine it just absorbs food the other is blood flukes-which cause liver damage some have evolved to infect humans with a pointed head which allows them to burrow through the skin and enter also they can incorparte human antigens onto their surface making them invisble to the host immune system
Some cause disease like malaria and others affect food production by damaging crops and casuing disease in livestock so decresaing yield,
linked to the host because the host evolces ways to prevent infection or destory the parasite and the parasite in turn will always evolve ways to avoid the hosts mechanisms
What parasite causes malaria? how big is it and where? what do the african population also suffer from?
What sort of disorder is sickle cell anemia? what does it cause? what happens to the red blood cells? what does it cause? what are the symptoms? how is it treated?
How is sickle cel anemai causes? whats the probability if two people who carry the sickel cell anameia llel have children? whats the ratio in the children? whats a carrier?
Why is sickle cell anamiea rarer in britain? what do the malaria parasites use red blood cells as? Why are carriers less likely to get malaria? what has caused the sickle cell allee to be more frequent?
Mosuqiotes, its one of the most widespread infections in the world and has huge impact in africa, the genetic disorder sickle-cell anaemia,
Genetic disorder, it causes the red blood cell to be shaped like sickles instead of normal round shaped bood cells, they can get stuck in the capillaries which deprives the body cells of oxygen, physical weakness pain fever anaemia heart failure brain damager risk of dying, treated with a bone marrow transplant and symptioms can be prevented by drugs and blood transfusions
caused by inherting two recessive alleses, 25%, 3:1, non sufferer:suffer, A carrier has one recessive allels and are noramlyl healthy but can pass on the genetically
its because carriers are more immune to malaria, a place to grow and divide, seeing as carriers red blood cells can be abnoraml the parasites find it difficult to live in these abnormal red blood cells so they are les likely to get malaria, natural selection
Whats photosynthesis? where does it happen? what does it happen inside how? whats the equaiton?
What are the three main ways plants use glucose? how?
So what do they use it to make? what are they?
is the process that produces food in plants the food is glucose which is a sugar, it happens in the leaves of plants, it happens inside the chloroplast in the leaves seeing as the chloroplast contains a subsatnce called chlorophyll which absorbs sunlight and allows its energy to be used to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and also oxygen is produced, carbon dioxide+water =(sunlight chlorphyll) glucose + oxygen
Respirtation- plants use some of the glucose for respirtation, the process releases energy from the glucose some of this energy is used to convert som of the glucose into various other useful substances which they can use to build new cells and grow, to produce some these substancees they also need to gaterh minerals from soil,
Chemiclas for growth- glucose is coverted into cellulose for making cell walls especially in a rapidly growing plant, its combined with nitrates cillected from the soil to make amino acids which are then made into proteins, glucose is also used to help make chorophyll
Stored as Starch- its turned into starch and stored in roots stems and leaves, and ready for use at time when the rate of photsynthesis is slower like in the winter, underground plants store a lot of starcg so a new one can grow in the spring, its insolouale in water which makes it better for storing because it doesnt bloat the storage cells by osmosis like glucose would as glucose is soluable
cellulose, porteins and starch which are polymers
Rate of Photsynthesis
What are the three factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis? whats a limtiign factor? facotrs are limitied at particular times what does it depend on? what are they?
What are the three important graphs for rate of photsynthesis?
Light graph- what does light provide? what happens as the light level increases? why wont it make a difference beyond a certain point? how can you change the light intensity? what happens if you plot a graph with the rate of photosynthesis against dsitance of light? how do you get a accurate graph?
Carbon dioxide- Co2 is one of ______ needed for _____? incresaing co2 increases what? what happens to a certain point? whats the limiting factor when co2 and light have plenty supply? how can you increase co2 supply?
Temperature-when is the temp the limitign factor?what needs optimum temps to work to its full potetnial? whats the optimum temp? what happens if it to hot or cold?
light, co2 and temp, this means that it stops photosynthesis from happening any faster, enviormnetal conditoons, at night theres not light in winter its temp and if its warm and light enough the co2 will be the limiting factor
energy needed for photosynthesis, raises the rate of photsynthesis, because the temp or co2 will become the limiting factor, by moving a lamp closer or further away, a weird shaped graph, measure the light intensity fat the beaker using a light meter
raw materials and photosynthesis, the rate of photsynthesis, seeing as co2 is no longer the limtiing facotor, temperature, in water plants you can dissolve different amounts of sodium hydrogencarbonate in the water which gives of co2
When its to high or to low, the enzymes needded for photsyntheses, 45 degrees, if its to low they will work slow and if to high they will denature
Rate of Photosynthesis
How can you work out the ideal conditons for a plant? whast the easisest type to test? why? how?
What do you have to make sure is constant to make sure its a fari test? if its not fair what are your results?
What should you look out for in the light source? in the type of place you use? why should you use a large flask and do the experiment as quick as possible? and what should you look out for when using sodium hydrogencarbonate?
Doing an experiment on it, candian pondweed, you can easily measure the amount of oxygen produced in a given time to show the rate of photosynthesis, you could count the bubbles or you coullec tthe oxygen in a gas syringe,
variables constant apart from the one your investigating, so its a fair test otherwise you get unreliable results
it doesnt increase the temp, make sure the temp isnt different, so the plant doesnt use to much of the co2 in the flask, make sure its changed each time
Plants and Respiration
What do plants use photosynthesis to do? what about respiration? what are these processes called? whats the formula for photosynthesis and respiration?When does photysntheis happen? when does respiration happen? Why do plants taken in carbon dioxide and release oxygen in the daytime? why do they take in oxygena and give out carbon dioxide at night?
whast the rate of photsynthesis at mid night? why? what does this mean? whast the compensation point? when is the rate of photosyntheis highest? why?
What do some cells in plants grow into? what do they do? why is it importnat? whats the concentration of minerlas in soil? what about root hair cell? what does this go against? what happens instead? what is it?
They trap light and turn co2 and water into oxyegn and glucose, respiration use oxygen ad glucose and turns it back into co2 and water, opposite process, photosytntheis- carbon dixoide+water = glucose + oxygen, glucose + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water, happens only in the day, respiration happens all the time, in the day plants make more oxygen by photsynthesis than they is in respiration, at night theres no light for photosynthesis so plants only respire meaning they take in oxygen from there surrounding atmopshere and release co2,
Zero because theres no light meaning there is more carbon dioxide being given out by respiration than there is used up, the amount of co2 released by respiretion is equal to the amount the plant uses for photosynthesis, miday, the plant is taking in a lot more carbon dioxide for photosynthesis than its giving out
Long hairs which stick out giving the plant a big surface area for obsorbing minerals in soil, because minerals are essentia to growth, its low, higher than the soil, difusion, active transport where it uses energy from respiration to move minerals into the root hair against the concentration gradient
Humans and the Atomsphere
What do scientists believe human activity is increasing? what ways are we doing this? what do we use fuels for? how does deforestation affect co2 levels?
What do they believe increasing co2 levels is increasing? whats this called? why should we be worried about global warming?
Humans release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere as part of everyday lives when we burn fossil fuels which we use in cars, electricy propduction and industrrial porcesses, people around the word are cutting down large areas of forests (deforestation) for timer and to clear land for farming and housing, deforesation affecst co2 because when trees are burnt it releases co2 also microrganisms that feed on dead wood release co2 in waste and cuttind down loads of trees means the amount of co2 being removed from the atmopshere during photosynthesis is reduced
Increases temp called global warming, as the sea gets warmer it will expand and ice may melt causing sea levels to rise causing flooding in low lying places, hurricanes from over water thats warmer than 26 degrees, if weather patterns change the food we grow will be affected
Are bacteria big or small compared to your body cells? whast the fraction? what dont they have? what does this mean? What can they contain? what is it? draw a bacteria cell?
Where can bacteria and fungi be grown? how? why? if theyre aerobic what do they need?
What can microorganisms help us produce? whats it used for? whats its source? where is ti gronw? what conditions?
Small, 1/100th of body cells, they have no nuclues meaning the chromosme is free in the cytoplasm, it can contain plasmids which are small circular molecules od DNA which are seperate from the chromosome
Grown in fermenter, it gives them the right conditons they need to grow to produce their useful rpoducts, they need food and oxygen and the right temp
Mycoprotein which means protein from fungi, its a type of sing celled protein and is used to make meat substitues for vegetarian meals like quorn, a fungus called fusarium is the main source of mycoprotein which is grown in a fermenter usuing glucose syrup as food, the fungus respires aerobically so oxygen is supplied plus nitrogen as ammonia and other materials
Antibiotics- They can be used to produce antibiotics on a large scale like penicilin which is made by growing mould whihc is a type of fungus in a fermenter, the mould is grown in a liquid culutre medium containing sugar and other nutrients the sugar is then used up as the mould grows then the mould starst to make peniclin after using up most of the nutrietns for growth
Enzymes which are needed to make some foods like cheese and to manufacture it on a large scale youll need to a lot of enzymes, its tradionally made with the enzume rennin from the lining of a calfs stomach now it can be produced genetically modified organisms in a large quanity (veg subsitiue)
Whats the basic idea of genetic modification? how can micorganisms be gentically modified? how can plants be genetically modified?
What are the stages of genetic modification?
Where has the gene for human insulin producion been put? where are they cultured? where does the human insulin come from? what are the pros and cons to using bacteria to make drugs and hormones?
What do some plants have resitance to? whats the problem here? what can genetic modification do? what are the pros and cons of geneticalyl moifying plants?
Is to move sections of DNA (genes) from on e organism to antoerh to produce a more useful organism, microgorganisms like abcteria can be modified to produce a useful product like an enzyyme for a drug also plants can be modified to make them resistant to things like herbicides, frost and disease
First the gene thats responsible for producing the desirable characteristics is selected, its then cut from the DNA using restriction enzymes and isolated, the useful gene is often joined to a vector which is a carrier for the gene which makes it easier to insert into a new cell, the gene is insertedinto the vector using the enzyme ligase, plasmids and viruses are often used as vectors, the useful gene is inserted into the host DNA of the organism using a vector, this produces an organism with the desired characteristics
Bacteria, in a fermenter, is extarcted as they produce it, Pros- usuing genetically modifed organism to make substance is often relativly cheap and easy also they can produce large amounts of the product the Cons- if these bactera mutated and bacme pathogenic (diseas causing) the foreign genes might make them more harmful and unpredictable also as many people say that its not natural to fiddle with genes
Herbicides, frost damage and disease, not all plants that we want to grow have these features, we can cut out the gene responsible and stick it into any useful plant we like, Pros- GM crops can increase yield of a crop and people living in developing nations often lack nutrient in diets so GM crops can be enginered to contain missing nutrients like makign rice contain beta-carotene, the Cons- not everyone thinks theyre safe as they people may devlop allergies and a big convern is that transplanted genes may get into the natural enviroment like herbicde-resistance might create a superweed
DNA Technology- Genetic Testing
What are the two categories of genetic disorder than can be tested for? What is DNA isolated from white blood cells usually tested for? whats good here?
How do you idnetify a faulty gene? how do you identify a chromosome abnormality? How do you use the gene probe?
How comes you can a find a specific sequence of bases but you cant see the probe with your eyes? what are the two types of tags? draw a gene probe on a chromosome?
A faulty gene- a gene that has a differnet sequence of bases to the normal gene and a chromosome abnormality- having the wrong number of chromosomes e.g. down syndrome is a result of havin an extra copy of chromosome 21, to test for genetic disorder as its quick and easy to take a blood sample with lots of white blood cells
To identify a faulty gene you can produce a gene probe this is a strand of bases thats complementray to the fault gene that your looking for, to identify a chromosome abnoramlity you can tell how manyy times a chromosome is present by trying to locate a gene thats only found on a chromosme if thsi is present more or less times than usual there might be the wrong number of chromosomes so a gene probe can be made to identify the gene, the gene probe is mixed with DNA and if the gene is present the probe will stick to it and their bases will lock otgether perfectly
A chemical tag is stuck on the end of the sequence of bases so you can locate the gene probe once its stuck, the two are fluroscent where they floresce when you shine UV light on them and a radioactive chemical which can be detcted using autoradiography a bit lik xray,
The Skeletal System
Whats the three jobs of a skeleton? fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals are all what? what does this mean? where other animals skeltons? name one?
What are the bones at a joint held togetehr by? what sort of strength do they have? what does this mean? what are they also? what are the ends of bones covered by? what does it stop? cartiliage can be slightly compressed why is this good? what do membranes at some joints release? what does this do?
Complete the sentence: different kinds of _______ move in _______ ways
What are bones attached to muscles by? what do they also attach to what? how do muscles move bones? what cant tendonds do? what does this mean the muscle does? Why do muscles come in pairs? what are these pairs called? give an example?
complete the sentence: when one ____ in the pair ______, the ______ moves in the one _____. When the other ______ contracts it moves in the ________ direction
Allow movement, support and protection of vital organs, are all vertebreas meaning they all have a backbone and an internal skeleton, skelton on the outside like insects
Ligaments whihc have tensile strength meaning they can pull without snapping easily they are also slightly elastic, a smooth layer of cartilgae to stop the vones rubbing, so it acts as a shock absorber, release oily synovila fluid to lubriacte the joint allowing them to move easily,
Tendons which also attach muscles to muscles, by contracting, they cant strecth meaning the muscles must pull the bone, as muscle can only pull on the bone to move move the joint as they cant push they work in pairs, antagonsitic pairs, the biceps and triceps
muscle, joint, direction,muscle, opposite
Health and Fitness
Why does a health practioner need to monitor a patien? why does a fitness practioner need to monitor a pateient?
What essential background information do pracitioners need?
Why do practitioners need to keep records?
They check medication is working and if necessary re-evaulte it by retesting the patient they also need to check for side effects from the treatment, they need to procide encoyragemtn to keep the motivated they also need to monitor rogress and adjust aims if necssary like increasing the distance run and to check injuries in case they are overdoing
Symptoms- if they need medication the practioner will need to know the symptoms to get an accurate diagnosis to help choose the right treatment, preveious health or fitness treatements- to know what has or hasnt worked before, Family medical history as gentic illnesses can run in familes, lifestyle factors- smoker or drinker as they can suffer from certain diseases or disorder, current medication- differne tmediciens can interact so its important to know what to avoid,physical activity- so they know what fitness programme to challenge but not injure
Remembeing essential background information they used to plan, Remerbering the treatement, monitoring changes to see if the client is progresseing and sharing indfomation with professionals involved so everyone is loking at all the inforamtion so they what to advise and avoid
Health and Fitness
What are treatments designed for? What can they have? how comes treatments with side effecst go ahead?
Why do different treatmens and programmes have different targets?
Give an example of when a differnt method is used for the same target?
Why may a treatment be modified during in the montiroing process?
Give an example of why monitoring should continue after treatment is completed?
What does the assesment of progress depend on?
To increase the rate of healing and reduce the chance of further damage, side effects, when the benenfits outweigh the sideeffects
Enahnced fitness- is when the cleint is iaming to improve their fitness which can mean different thing for different people like running faste or being flexible, Cure- often the repair of damaged tissue like healing a sprain or mending a bone often the cure is just natural by rest, Recovery/Rehabilitation- when the patient is brought back to the same level of function before an injury or illness it can involve training programme where they undertake progressivly more diffucult tasks
A young man breaks his hip and gets pain relief and rest to mend the bone then physio to increase muscle strength arodunt he hip to increase mobility an elederly man does the same but is is advised a hip replacement followed by rest and physio to build...
Because its not producing an imporvement like an antibiotic isnt clearing infectio, because its causing damage like exercise causing injury, producing side effects that outweigh the benefit like drugs can cause bad stomach
An athelete tears her tendon she as to rest and then starts a series of exercises gradually stretching the heel more and more, her trainier checks and recors the amount of strectch at the hell and checks for sings its worsening like pain, she has to be monitored to check its ok
Accuracy- the results should be as close to whatss actually happening like a docotr should use accurate scales for weighing somone and reliabilty where the results should be consisten when weighing thsy should use teh same scales and the same clohtes
Health and Fitness
What are common injuries caused by exercise? how does it occur? what does it cause?
What are the symptoms of a sprain? what does treatment involve? if its not sever what method is used? explain it?
Whats a more serious injury? who treats it? what will they do? name examples? what will they advise to rehabilitate? whats graded exercises?
What might an exercise for a damged knee consist of?
Sprains- damage to a ligament usually by being strecthed to much like a twsited ankle where the foot turns over pulling the ligament to far causing damage and pain, Dislocation- a bone comes out of the socket like a heavy fall could disolocate the shoulder casuing pain the joint looks weird beacsue the bone is positoned wrong, TOrn ligaments- the ligament tears casuing more pain than a sprain and will often means loss of control of the koint as the bones are no longer attached, Torn Tendons- a tear in the tendon that attaches the muscle to its bone it ocfurs when a muscle contracts in one direction but is pulled in the opposite direction
Pain and swelling, reducing the symptoms and creating the right conditons for it to heal itself, RICE method, Rest- to avoif fruther damager criticla in the first 24 hours then it can be slowly used more, ICE to help reduce the swelling it works by redcing the temperature and blood flow to the area, COmpression- a firm bandage is place around the part to gelp reduce swelling and prevent further damage from excess movemntn it cant be to tight otherwise will cut the blood flow, Elevation- rasiing the limb as high as possible to reduce swelling by making it easier for blood to flow back to the heart
Skeltal or muscular system, physiotherapist, treatment (RICE or cortisone injections) thereapies(laser treatment) to speed healing and advise the best exercises to rehabilitate, they seadily build the strength of a muscle or joint,
Standing up tensing without moving the kneee, sitting with the lower leg hanging loose then slowly raising and lowering the lower leg by bending the knee, stepping up and down onto and of a low box, standing and bending and straightneing the legs at the knee