B7.1 : Peak performance - movement and exercise

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The skeleton

  • Skeleton is made up of bone and cartilage.
  • It supports the weight of the body and allows it to move.
  • It also makes blood cells and protects organs.
  • Joints between bones allow movement. Muscles attached to bones contract to move them.
  • Muscles act in Antagonistic pairs to move bones.
  • One muscle flexes and the other extends. (Muscles can only contract)
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  • Contain Synovial fluid - Acts as a lubricant to reduce wear; makes movement smoother.
  • Tendon - Tough band of Inelastic tissue; attaches muscle to bone.
  • Ligaments - Bands of Elastic tissue; holds bones to each other.
  • Cartilage - Smooth, protective surface; covers bone end to allow easy movement.
  • Synovial membrane - Tissue lines the joint capsule; secretes synovial fluid.
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Starting an exercise regime

  • Medical history and Lifestyle history help a trainer to plan a suitable exercise regime for you.
  • Family medical history - Certain conditions run in the family. The trainer can adjust the regime to account for such conditions.
  • Personal medical history - Previous injuries to muscles and joints can affect your ability to do certain exercises.
  • Medication - You may need medication close at hand.
  • Alcohol and tobacco consumption - Can affect performance and progress towards improved fitness.
  • Level of activity - If you are already very active, trainers can start you off at a higher level.
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Showing inprovement

  • Level of fitness can be assessed using:
  • Heart rate - Increases to deliver more Glucose and Oxygen to muscles, Healthy heart increases rate Less.
  • Blood pressure - Increases as heart pumps more forcefully, as you get fitter it may not rise as much.
  • Recovery period - How quickly breathing and heart rate return back to normal, shorter recovery time is better.
  • Proportion of body fat - Too much strains the heart and may reduce blood flow to the arteries.
  • Body mass index (BMI) - Compares body mass with height, indicates whether you are underweight, healthy or overweight
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Gathering suitable data

  • Accurate data is close to the true or 'real' value.
  • Repeatable means that several runs of the experiment will produce similar results.
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  • Injuries such as Sprains, Dislocations, Torn ligaments and Torn tendons can occur with too much exercise.
  • Sprains - caused by overstretching a ligament
  • Symptoms include: Redness and swelling, surface bruising, difficulty walking, dull throbbing ache or sharp pains.
  • Usual treatment is RICE:
  • Rest - Immobilise the injured joint.
  • Ice - Holding ice over the joint reduces swelling and pain.
  • Compression - A  bandage around the joint can reduce swelling.
  • Elevation - Raising the injured joint helps drain away excess fluid.
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