- Skeleton is made up of bone and cartilage.
- It supports the weight of the body and allows it to move.
- It also makes blood cells and protects organs.
- Joints between bones allow movement. Muscles attached to bones contract to move them.
- Muscles act in Antagonistic pairs to move bones.
- One muscle flexes and the other extends. (Muscles can only contract)
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- Contain Synovial fluid - Acts as a lubricant to reduce wear; makes movement smoother.
- Tendon - Tough band of Inelastic tissue; attaches muscle to bone.
- Ligaments - Bands of Elastic tissue; holds bones to each other.
- Cartilage - Smooth, protective surface; covers bone end to allow easy movement.
- Synovial membrane - Tissue lines the joint capsule; secretes synovial fluid.
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Starting an exercise regime
- Medical history and Lifestyle history help a trainer to plan a suitable exercise regime for you.
- Family medical history - Certain conditions run in the family. The trainer can adjust the regime to account for such conditions.
- Personal medical history - Previous injuries to muscles and joints can affect your ability to do certain exercises.
- Medication - You may need medication close at hand.
- Alcohol and tobacco consumption - Can affect performance and progress towards improved fitness.
- Level of activity - If you are already very active, trainers can start you off at a higher level.
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- Level of fitness can be assessed using:
- Heart rate - Increases to deliver more Glucose and Oxygen to muscles, Healthy heart increases rate Less.
- Blood pressure - Increases as heart pumps more forcefully, as you get fitter it may not rise as much.
- Recovery period - How quickly breathing and heart rate return back to normal, shorter recovery time is better.
- Proportion of body fat - Too much strains the heart and may reduce blood flow to the arteries.
- Body mass index (BMI) - Compares body mass with height, indicates whether you are underweight, healthy or overweight.
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Gathering suitable data
- Accurate data is close to the true or 'real' value.
- Repeatable means that several runs of the experiment will produce similar results.
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- Injuries such as Sprains, Dislocations, Torn ligaments and Torn tendons can occur with too much exercise.
- Sprains - caused by overstretching a ligament.
- Symptoms include: Redness and swelling, surface bruising, difficulty walking, dull throbbing ache or sharp pains.
- Usual treatment is RICE:
- Rest - Immobilise the injured joint.
- Ice - Holding ice over the joint reduces swelling and pain.
- Compression - A bandage around the joint can reduce swelling.
- Elevation - Raising the injured joint helps drain away excess fluid.
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