B6 - Understanding Bacteria

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Understanding Bacteria & Genetic Engineering - Que

Understanding bacteria

  • Why do bacteria have flagella?
  • Write down the name of a chemical that bacteria can use to make food.
  • When making yoghurt, milk is first heated to 95oC. Suggest why.
  • Describe one example of good practice when using bacteria.

Genetic Engineering

  • Describe the stages involved in creating a transgenic organism.
  • What are restriction enzymes used for?
  • Which type of organism is genetically engineered to make insulin?
  • Suggest one disadvantage to growing plants resistand to weed killers.
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Understanding Bacteria & Genetic Engineering - Ans

Understanding bacteria

  • To help the move.
  • Hydrogen sulphide or ammonia.
  • To kill any unwanted bacteria already in the milk.
  • Wash hands before/after handling bacteria, disinfect working areas, sterilise all equipment before/after use, don't leave lids off containers.

Genetic Engineering

  • Identify the gene needed and remove it from the DNA; cut open the DNA in another organism; add the gene to the DNA of that organism; this is now a transgenic organism; clone the transgenic organism.
  • Cut open the DNA.
  • Bacteria
  • The resistance could pass to plants in the environment making it more difficult to kill them
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Harmful microorganisms & Microorganisms - Question

Harmful microorganisms

  • Describe how you could become infected with the dysentery pathogen.
  • Which two bacteria cause food poisoning?
  • Write down the name of the first antiniotic.
  • Explain why loss of electrical supplies could cause food poisoning.

Microorganisms

  • Write down the word equation for fermentation.
  • Yeast grown to make alcohol isnot given oxygen. Explain why.
  • Describe how the alcohol concentration of a drink can be increased.
  • How can wines be made with different flavours?
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Harmful microorganisms & Microorganisms - Answers

Harmful microorganisms

  • Drinking contaminated water.
  • Salmonella and E.Coli
  • Penicillin
  • Food cannot be kept cold, so decays faster.

Microorganisms

  • Sugar = alcohol+carbon dioxide+energy
  • To stop the yeast carrying out aerobic respiration and not make any alcohol.
  • Distillation, heating the drink to evaporate the alcohol then cooling the alcohol to collect it.
  • By using different strains of yeast.
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Biofuels & Life in soil - Questions

Biofuels

  • Why is the method of making methane called continuous flow method?
  • Digesters must be kept below 45oC. Explain Why.
  • Describe how biogas can help a central heating system.
  • Biofuels may help reduce the greenhouse effect. Explain why.

Life in soil

  • Earthworms burrow into the soil. Explain why this improves the soil.
  • Why did Darwing believe earthworms were so important to soil?
  • Earthworms are detrivores; name another detrivore that lives in soil.
  • What is the job of Azotobacter in the nitrogen cycle?
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Biofuels & Life in soil - Answers

Biofuels

  • Because it caries on without stopping for a long time, methane is taken out continuously not just in one go.
  • Above 45oC enzymes denature and bacteria die.
  • Heats water and produces steam.
  • Biofules do not increase atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide and growing the plants may help to reduce levels.

Life in soil

  • It aerates the soil and improves drainage.
  • Earthworms mix up the layers; this results in  a deeper layer of fertile soil.
  • Millipedes or springtails.
  • Convert nitrogen from the air and use it in their own proteins.
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Microscopic life in water & Enzymes in action - Q

Microscopic life in water

  • What advantages does living in two habitats give to frogs?
  • When does a salmon actively transport saly into its body?
  • Caddis fly larvae are not found in polluted water. Suggest a reason why.
  • Algal blooms are more common when there is more light. Explain why.

Enzymes in action

  • Which group of enzymes are needed to remove protein stains?
  • What are the products when sucrase breaks down sucrose?
  • Write down two advantages of using immobilised enzymes.
  • What are the products when lactase breaks down lactose?
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Microscopic life in water & Enzymes in action - A

Microscopic life in water

  • Reduces the competition for food between young and adult.
  • When it swims in fresh water.
  • Not enough oxygen for them to survive.
  • Algae have more light energy for photosynthesis.

Enzymes in action

  • Proteases.
  • Glucose and frutcose.
  • Immobilised enzymes are easier to seperate from the solution and they do not contaminate the product.
  • Glucose and galactose.
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