Bacteria have a:
- Flagellum for movement
- cell Wall to maintain shape
- DNA to control activities and replication
The different Shapes are:
- Rod - Anthrax
- Curved Rod - Cholera
- Spherical - MRSA
- Corkscrew - Siphilis
Bacteria reproduce by Binary Fission
Yeast is a fungus
It is affected by:
- Food availability
- Removing waste products.
It is used in the Fermentation process to produce alcohol:
- Solution with grapes/Hops and yeast and glucose is left to Anaerobically respire (use bubble trap) to produce Ethanol and Carbon Dioxide.
- It is then Pasteurised
They are made up of:
- A protein coat
- Strands of Genetic Material
To make people ill:
- They Inject themselves into the host cell
- They Alter the cell so that it produces the virus material.
- The cell Bursts and the new virus material emerges
1. All equipment is sterilised
2. The milk is pasteurised
3. Lacto Bacillus is added, which breaks down the lactose in milk, produceing the waste product Lactic Acid.
4. The yoghurt is sampled, flavour is added, and it is packaged.
Disease and its opponents
Disease can spread by:
- The air - Through sneezing etc
- The Water - Like cholera
- Through contact -Like handshakes
- Through food -Salmonella
1. The microbes Enter the body
2. The microbes multiply without causing symptons, Incubation period
3. The microbes produce toxins, which make us ill
After a natural disaster: Damage to sewer systems (water), Damage to electricity (food), Damage to hospitals (No medicine), refugee camps (Touch and the air)Pioneers:
Louis pasteur -Germ theoryJoseph Lister -
1. Due to mutations, some bacteria are antibiotic resistent
2. These survive while the others are killed by antibiotics
3. The survivors multiply
4. There are now lots of antibiotic resistant bacteria
1. They are an alternative to fossil fuels. 1. species may become extinct
2. They do not use greenhouse gases 2. The land could be used for food
3. They do not release particulates when burnt
Biogas digesters produce biogas.
Continuous flow method
Methane/Carbon dioxide/hydrogen,nitrogen, hydrogen sulphide
Brazil uses gasohol, mixture between alcohol and biogas.
Humus -Dead and decaying waste.
Loam - good soil
- Sandy soil has lots of sand particles, which are denser
- Clay soil has lots of clay particles, which are less dense
Large particles - Air content
Small particles - Water rentation
Earthworms aerate the soil and mix up the soil layers and aerate it.