HideShow resource information


Bacteria have a:

  • Flagellum for movement
  • cell Wall to maintain shape
  • DNA to control activities and replication

The different Shapes are:

  • Rod - Anthrax
  • Curved Rod - Cholera
  • Spherical - MRSA
  • Corkscrew - Siphilis

Bacteria reproduce by Binary Fission

1 of 8


Yeast is a fungus

It is affected by:

  • pH
  • Temperature
  • Food availability
  • Removing waste products.

It is used in the Fermentation process to produce alcohol:

  • Solution with grapes/Hops and yeast and glucose is left to Anaerobically respire (use bubble trap) to produce Ethanol and Carbon Dioxide.
  • It is then Pasteurised
2 of 8


They are made up of:

  • A protein coat
  • Strands of Genetic Material

To make people ill:

  • They Inject themselves into the host cell
  • They Alter the cell so that it produces the virus material.
  • The cell Bursts and the new virus material emerges
3 of 8

Making Yoghurt

1. All equipment is sterilised

2. The milk is pasteurised

3. Lacto Bacillus is added, which breaks down the lactose in milk, produceing the waste product Lactic Acid.

4. The yoghurt is sampled, flavour is added, and it is packaged. 

4 of 8

Disease and its opponents

Disease can spread by:

  • The air - Through sneezing etc
  • The Water - Like cholera
  • Through contact -Like handshakes
  • Through food -Salmonella

1. The microbes Enter the body

2. The microbes multiply without causing symptons, Incubation period

3. The microbes produce toxins, which make us ill

After a natural disaster: Damage to sewer systems (water), Damage to electricity (food), Damage to hospitals (No medicine), refugee camps (Touch and the air)Pioneers:
Louis pasteur -Germ theoryJoseph Lister -

5 of 8

Antibiotic Resistance

1. Due to mutations, some bacteria are antibiotic resistent

2. These survive while the others are killed by antibiotics

3. The survivors multiply

4. There are now lots of antibiotic resistant bacteria

6 of 8


Advantages                                                                                       Disadvantages

1. They are an alternative to fossil fuels.                            1. species may become extinct

2. They do not use greenhouse gases                               2. The land could be used for food               

3. They do not release particulates when burnt

Biogas digesters produce biogas.

Continuous flow method

Methane/Carbon dioxide/hydrogen,nitrogen, hydrogen sulphide


Brazil uses gasohol, mixture between alcohol and biogas.

7 of 8


Humus -Dead and decaying waste.

Loam - good soil

  • Sandy soil has lots of sand particles, which are denser
  • Clay soil has lots of clay particles, which are less dense

Large particles - Air content

Small particles - Water rentation

Earthworms aerate the soil and mix up the soil layers and aerate it.

8 of 8


No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Microbes and disease resources »