B6 module

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Central nervous system

Stimulus = change in organisms environment

Central nervous system = brain and spinal cord - coordinates animals responses

Neurons = specially adapted cells that carry electrical signals when stimulated

Peripheral nervous system = sensory neurons + motor neurons

Sensorys neurons = impulses from receptors to CNS

Motor neurons = carry impulses from CNS to effectors

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Synapses = gaps between adjacent neurons

Impulses are transferred between neurons in the following way...

- nerve impulse moves through sensory neuron

- chemical neurotransmitters are released into synapse

- neurotransmitters diffuse across synapse and bind with receptros on motor neuron

- nerve impulse is sent through motor neuron

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Reflex and Conditional Actions

Actions increase an animals chance of survival

Reflex action = fast, automatic, involuntary response to stimulus

Receptor stimulated - sensory neuron - relay neuron - motor neuron - effector - response

Conditioned reflex action = association between primary and secondary stimulus. Final response has no direct connection to stimulus.

Modifying a reflex action - brian sends signal to motor neuron

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Childrens development and the Brain

Feral children = children who have been isolated at crucial stages of development

If development milestones missing/late = neurological problems or lack of stimulation

Cerebral cortex deals with intelligence, memory, language, consciousness

Physiological techniques = stuides effects of damage to brain

Electronic techniques = visual record of electrical activity generated by neurons in brain

MRI scans = records different levels of electrical activity of the brain

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Memory = ability to store and retrieve information

Short-term = limited information for limited time perioud

Long-term = unlimited amount of imformation

Information is easier to remember if...

- repeated

- there is a strong stimulus attached

- there is a pattern to it

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