B4 Keywords

Keywords for B4: Processes of Life

OCR 21st Century Science

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ACTIVE SITE

The part of an enzyme where the reacting molecules fit into. Each active site has a specific shape for different types of reacting molecules

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ACTIVE TRANSPORT

Active Transport is where molecules are moved in or out of a cell using energy. This process is used when transport needs to be faster than diffusion, and when molecules are being moved from a region where they are at low concentration to where they are at high concentration

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CHLOROPHYLL

Pigments in the Chloroplasts which give them their green colour

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CHLOROPLASTS

Parts of a plant cell which absorb Sunlight and take in Water and Carbon Dioxide for Photosynthesis. When Photosynthesis is complete, these release Oxygen and Glucuse.

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CUTICLE

Protective layer of a Leaf which protects the cells

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DENATURED

An enzyme is said to be denatured when its active site changes shape due to Temperature or pH level

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DIFFUSION

Dispersion of Chemicals from an area of High Concentration to an area of Lower Concentration

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ENZYMES

Proteins that speeds up chemical reactions in living things

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EPIDERMIS

Top layer of cells in a Leaf

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MESOPHYLL

Contains the Upper Palisade layer of cells in a Leaf

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MITOCHONDRIA

Specialised parts of any cell containing the Enzymes needed for Respiration. Also contains a Highly Folded inner membrane in order to absorb more Glucose and Oxygen for Aerobic Respiration

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OPTIMUM TEMPERATURE

The temperature at which enzymes work fastest

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OSMOSIS

The diffusion of water across a partially permeable membrane

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PALISADE

Layer of Plant Cells in a Leaf containing the most Chloroplasts

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PARTIALLY PERMEABLE MEMBRANE

A membrane that acts as a barrier to some molecules, but allows others to diffuse freely

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PHOTOSYNTHESIS

A chemical reaction in the Chloroplasts of plant cells which allow plants to make their own food using sunlight

Carbon Dioxide + Water à Glucose + Oxygen

  6CO2 + 6H2O à C6H12O6 + 6O2

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RESPIRATION

A reaction in cells which release energy for the cell to use. There are 2 types of respiration:

Aerobic: Glucose + Oxygen à Carbon Dioxide + Water (+ENERGY)

C6H12O6 + 6O2 à 6CO2 + 6H2O (+ATP)

Anaerobic: ANIMAL CELLS AND BACTERIA -- Glucose à Lactic acid

PLANT CELLS AND YEAST -- Glucose à Alcohol and Carbon Dioxide

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STARCH

Long chains of Glucose molecules which is stored by Plants for Respiration

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STOMATA

Gaps in a Leaf where Carbon Dioxide is absorbed for Photosynthesis and where Oxygen Diffuses into the air

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