Waxy Cuticle- protective layer above epidermis, minimises water loss, reduces pathogen entry, cacti have thick cuticles to reduce risk of drying out in hot climate.
Epidermis- absorbs nutrients, protects from water loss, and protects leaf in case of damage to cuticle.
Chloroplasts- contain chlorophyll, pigments make leaf appear green, and helps carry out photosynthesis.
Xylem- transports and stores water, minerals and nutrients.
Phloem- distributes sugars and nutrients.
Stoma- pore found on underside of leaf, allows gases to pass in and out of leaf.
Guard Cell- two cells side of stoma, protects stoma, and allows oxygen, carbon dioxide and water in and out of leaf.
Food Chanins and Pyramids
Pyramid of Numbers- Could be any shape not just a pyramid. E.G. Could be 40 of a species on the bottom, 100 above that, 10 above that. Does not have to be perfect pyramid shape.
Pyramid of Biomass- Has to be pyramid shape.
Energy- lost through each stage of food chain through:
- The whole animal not being consumed
- Movement (living in general)