B3 revision cards!

some revision cards for biology b3, hope there helpful!

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  • Created by: beth
  • Created on: 20-05-10 16:00


Things you need to remember!

Production of yougurt

  • All equipment is sterilised to kill any microorganisms
  • Milk is then pasteurised(72 degrees for 15 seconds) to kill any harmful microorganisms
  • A starter culture of bacteria is added and then the mixture is incubated in a fermenter
  • The bacteria have fermented making lactose sugar in the milk which then forms lactic acid, this makes the milk clot/curdle and solidify
  • finally fruits and flavourings are added.
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Production of soy sauce

  • Roasted wheat & cooked soy beans are mixed
  • Aspergillus fungus is added to the mixture and fermented
  • the mixture is then fermented by yeast
  • and then fermented again (oh yes again) by lactobaccillus bacterium
  • the liquid now has to be filtered to remove any solid or lumpy bits
  • the liquid is then pasteurised(72 degrees for 15 seconds) to kill of any harmful microorganisms
  • the soy sauce is then placed into sterile bottles
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Substances you need to know!

  • Citric acid - is found in citrus fruits but can't be produced this way because it's very expensive, therefore it can be produced by aspergillus niger which is much cheaper - it's used in foods for flavourings and preservatives.
  • Vitamin C - (you've all heard of this one!) It's made using acetober bacterium and isused for dietry supplements.
  • Invertase (This is an enzyme)- is made by a yeast (saccharomycescervisile) and converts sucrose into glucose and fructose, something to remember is that fructose is sweeter than sucrose + glucose therefore you don't need as much of it in products which resutls in lower costs for the producer and less calories in the product! which makes it ideal for use in diet food (everyone wins!)
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Prebiotics & probiotics!

  • Chymosin (This is an enzyme)- it's also know as rennet which is found from the lining of a calf's stomach (ew!) and is made for making cheese as it makes milk clot and solidify however rennet was isn't suitable for veggietarians - therefore it's also made by genetically modified microorganisms so cheese can be suitable for vegetarians too!
  • MSG (Monosodium glutamate)- is made from a bacteria called corynebacterium glutamicium (unfortunetly you are expected to remember this one too!) MSG is a flavour enhancer and is often used in asian foods,
  • Carrageen (this ones an easy one to remember! think of the seaside) - it's made by seaweed! (yeah seaweed!) and is used as an gelling agent in food and is also an emulsifier used in jellie and ice-cream!
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Prebiotics & probiotics!

Prebiotics - Contain oligosaccahrides which feeds our good bacteria!

Probiotics - contains bacteria which are a live culture! (probiotics are in your products that you see on the tv advertising better guts!) These live culture top up your good bacteria!

Good bacteria sets competition for bad bacteria and stops it from thriving in the body! (Good bacteria outcompetes bad bacteria!) some people don't have enough bacter and that's why they take probiotics!

By having probiotics and prebiotics this keeps your digestive system and gut healthy!

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Definciency diseases?

Definciency diseases are caused by not having enough essential nutrients in the body.

So what happens if i don't have enough..

Protein ---> kwashiorkor ---> distended abdoment, and stunted growth.

Vitamin C ---> Scurvy (yes that's what old fashioned sailors used to have) ---> Bleeding gums, ulcerated mouth, teeth falling out.

Vitamin D ---> (comes form the sun or uv light radiation) ---> Rickets (which leads to a calcium deficincey) ---> bendy bones bowing out knees.

Iron ---> Anaemia (not enough red blood cells) ---> exhaustion & fatigue shortness of breath, and being pale. (haemoglobin can't carry oxygen without iron)

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Olivia Gordon

We dont have to know about soy sauce.... :s... or your 'substances you need to know'... hmmm.... this isn't AQA, is it.. ok no worries, good luck in whatever exam this is for


I was thinking the same Olivia :s

But good notes if you need the stuff :)


This isnt Unit 1 is it??

If it is then im screwed loll

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