The Genetic Code
Gene - Length of DNA that codes for a characteristic/protein.
Genetic code - Coded information within the DNA of an organism that controls the proteins made by its cells, so controlling its characterisitcs and how it develops.
Base pairs - Pairs of DNA bases; A pairs with T and C pairs with G.
Proteins - Large molecules (polymers) made of many amino acids joined together. Proteins have many functions, including structural (as in muscle), hormones, antibodies, and enzymes.
How Genes Code For Proteins
Complementary base pairing - Pairing between DNA bases; A with T and C with G. Their shapes fit together; they are complimentary.
Base triplet - Sequence of three DNA bases in a gene, that specifies a particular amino acid's position in the protein.
Ribosomes - Structures in the cytoplasm of the cell, where proteins are assembled.
mRNA - Messenger RNA: a single-stranded molecule that carries a copy of the genetic code from the cell nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm, where proteins are assembled.
Why Proteins are important
Structural protein - Protein that makes up the structure of an organism; for example, collagen is a structural protein that occurs in skin, bone, and blood vessel walls.
Hormone - Chemical made by a gland and carried in the blood to its target organ(s)
Carrier protein - Protein, such as haemoglobin, that carries something.