Covering the Circulatory System

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  • Created by: Sofia
  • Created on: 23-04-12 18:04

The Heart

Right side:

Deoxygenated blood from body return to heart to be pumped to the lungs.

Left side:

Oxygenated blood from the lungs enters the heart and is pumped to the body organs and tissues.

Things that effect the heart:

  • Cholesterol
  • Fat
  • Smoking
  • High Blood Pressure
  • Stress
  • Salt
  • Alcohol
  • Hereditary Symptoms
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The Heart


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The Blood

In humans, the circulatory system consists of: A heart, lungs, arteries, veins and capillaries.

Plasma: Liquid that carries blood cells and other substances e.g. glucose.

Red Blood Cells: Contain haemoglobin. This binds to oxygen creating oxyhaemoglobin. The oxygen can then be released to cells.

White Blood Cells: Make antibodies to denature or engulf antigens.

Platelets: Help clotting

In every journey around the body, blood goes in and out of the heart twice=Double Circulatory System.

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Active Transport

Active transport:

  • Moving substances against a concentration gradient through a cell membrane
  • Moving mineral ions into plant root cells
  • In the kidney and gut


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Transport In Plants

  • Cuticle-waterproof layer
  • Upper epidermis-Support and no chlorophyll
  • Palisade mesophyll cell-Chloroplasts and photosynthesis
  • Bundle sheath cell
  • Xylem-Carries water
  • Phloem-carries glucose and food
  • Lower epidermis-Support
  • Spongy mesophyll cells-allow air to pass through
  • Guard cell-chloroplasts contain chlorphyll
  • Stoma-stomata
  • Cuticle-waterproof layer

Microvilli= small hairs on surface of main root} increase surface area

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Kidney Transplant



  • no need for tissue match.


  • Twice a week for life, expensive costs long term, always have to watch diet.

Kidney Transplant:


  • After surgery, can leave relatively normal life, lower cost of medicine


  • Need a donor, need tissue match, need surgery every 10 years.
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Kidney continued.

A.D.H: Stands for anti diuretic hormone, pituitary gland=water reabsorbed

Concentrated blood=ADH released from pituitary gland, water reabsorbed

Dilute blood=Much less ADH released from pituitary gland, water released in urine

If your kidney fails, its because there is a build up of toxins such as urea and salt in the blood. This can cause death due to water movement in cells or poisoning from urea.


Organs from other animals are used in a transplant

There is a big risk of infection, but if doctors can overcome this, it may help with the donor crisis.

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Food production with Yeast

Yeast: A single celled organism, reproduces asexually (BUDDING.)

Yeast can respire aerobically and anaerobically.


Sugar+Oxygen->Water+Carbon Dioxide+Energy


Sugar+Ethanol+Carbon Dioxide+A little energy.

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