Osmosis and diffusion
The movement of water from a dilute solution (lots of water) to a concentrated solution (less water) through a partially permeable membrane.
High concentration -------------------> low concentration
Used in lungs oxygen diffuses into the blood and carbon dioxide diffuses into the lungs.
Carbon Dioxide + Water ----> Glucose + Oxygen
Cells and mitosis
Parts of a cell
Cytoplasm, Chloroplast, Vacuole, Nucleus, Cell membrane, Cell Wall
A cell nucleus contains 46 Chromosomes, which carry genes. Different versions of genes are called allels.
Mitosis: used for normal cell growth
- Parent cell
- chromosomes make identical copies of themselves
- They line up along the centre
- They move apart
- two daughter cells form each with 46 identical chromosomes to the parent cell
Temperature about the body
-hair lies flat
-blood vessels dialate so heat is lost through the skin
-sweat is produced
-goosebumps and hairs trap air
-blood vessels constrict and no sweat is produced
-shiver, respiration, releases heat.
Enzymes and controlling blood sugar levels
Blood levels are controlled by the pancreas, diabetics do not produce enough insulin. Treatments are injections or a monitoring diet.
Enzymes have an optimum temperature and pH.
Changes in pH/temperature can denature the enzyme so it's shape changes and the substrate can't bind to the active site.