B2: Cells

Here is a set of revision cards for students taking AQA Additional Science. These cards are on cells from the B2 (biology) section of the course. Hope these cards help you to revise! Please rate and comment on how they can be improved :) Also, I have a study group called AQA Additional Science for students to discuss this topic and more. Feel free to become a member, the more the merrier!

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  • Created by: I P B
  • Created on: 17-12-09 17:34

Cell Organelles and Their Functions

Both Plant and Animal Cells have:

a nucleus = has genetic material and instructions for making new cells, controls the activities of the cell

cytoplasm = where most chemical processes take place e.g. respiration, is controlled by enzymes

cell membrane = controls the movement of substances into and out of the cell

mitochondria = where energy is released through respiration

ribosomes = for protein synthesis i.e. produces protein

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Cell Organelles and Their Functions Continued...

Plant Cells also have:

a cell wall = made of cellulose, gives the plant cell strength and support

chloroplasts = contain the pigment chlorophyll, absorbs light energy for photosynthesis

a permanent vacuole = filled with cell sap, keeps the cell turgid

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Organised Cells

Cells are organised to produce the human body:

cells > tissues >organs> organ systems > whole body

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Specialised Cells

Specialised cells = cells which are specific for carrying out one particular job.

Here are several examples of specialised cells which we need to know.

Root hair cell:

  • has a large surface area to absorb water and mineral ions efficiently
  • a large permanent vacuole which affects the movement of water from soil to cell
  • is always close to the xylem tissue that carries water to the rest of the plant
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Specialised Cells Continued...

Palisade Cell:

  • on the upper surface of the leaf
  • packed with chloroplasts for photosynthesis

Sperm Cell:

  • the head has genetic information and an enzyme to penetrate the egg cell membrane
  • middle sections is packed with mitochondria for energy
  • a tail to help movement
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Specialised Cells Continued...

Red Blood Cells:

  • thin outer membrane to let oxygen diffuse through easily
  • biconcave shape increases surface area for more oxygen to be absorbed
  • no nucleus so more room for oxyen and to allow the whole cell to be full of haemoglobin

Xylem Cell:

  • hollow cells with no cytoplasm to transport water through the stem
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Specialised Cells Continued...

Nerve Cell:

  • long slender axons to carry impulses over a long distance

Ovum (Egg) Cell:

  • very large (the largest human cell) to carry food reserves for the embryo

White Blood Cell:

  • can change shape to engulf and destroy microbes
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Specialised Cells Continued...

Fat Cells:

  • have little cytoplasm to allow room for fat
  • few mitochondria as they use little energy
  • can expand to allow room for more fat

Cone Cells:

  • found in the human eye
  • outer segment has visual pigment which changes chemically in coloured light
  • middle segment full of mitochondria to produce energy for the visual pigment to work
  • connections at the end to nerve cells in the optic nerve
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Comments

Kai

Thanks, i can see a lot of hard work as gone into these. Nice revision cards for my test in January.

I P B

Thanks Kai, I am glad they are useful to you!

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