B1 - You and Your Genes

These cards are revision for B1 You and Your Genes.

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What are Genes?

Genes are sections of very long DNA molecules that make up chromosomes in the nuclei of cells.

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What are Chromosomes?

Chromosomes are organized structures of DNA and proteins that are found in cells.

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What is DNA

DNA carries the genetic information in the body’s cells.

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What are Alleles?

Alleles are the different types of genetic material that code for a specific protein or gene.

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What is the Nucleus?

The nucleus is a dark structure inside the cell that controls the cell's activities and contains material like DNA.

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What is a Recessive Allele?

A recessive allele only shows if the individual has two copies of the recessive allele. For example, the allele for blue eyes is recessive. You need two copies of the allele to have blue eyes.

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What is a Dominant Allele?

A dominant allele always shows, even if the individual only has one copy of the allele. For example, the allele for brown eyes is dominant. You only need one copy of the allele to have brown eyes (and two copies will still give you brown eyes).

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What are chromosome, nucleus, gene, DNA and cell i


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What chromosomes does a woman have?

All women have two X chromosomes. 


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What chromosomes does a man have?

All men have an X and a Y chromosome.


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What are proteins?

Proteins are the building blocks of cells. Their are two typesof proteins:

Structural proteins - They are part of things like skin, hair, blood and the cytoplasm in our cells

Functional proteins - Enzymes are proteins that help with digestion by breaking down food molecules. 

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