B1 - Keywords

Keywords of You and your genes

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B1 - Keywords

Inherited - A feature that is passed from the parent to their offspring by their genes

Genes - A selection of DNA giving instructions of how to make one kind of protein

Environment - Everything around you including water and air and other living things

Nuclei

Chromosomes - Long thin, threadlike structure in the nucleus of a cell made from a molecule of DNA. Chromosomes carry genes

Structural - Make up the structure of a cell or an organism

DNA - Deoxyribonucleic Acid - The chemical that makes up chromosomes. DNA carries a genetic code, which controls how an organism develops

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B1 - Keywords

Protein - Chemicals in living things that are polymers made by joining together amino acids

Enzymes - A proteins that  catalysts  (speeds up) chemical reactions in living things

Functional - Proteins that take part in chemical reactions such as enzymes

Sex cells - Cells produced by males and females for reproduction, sperm cells and egg cells. Sex cells carry a copy of the parents genetic information. They join together at fertilization.

Embryo - The earliest stage of development for a plant or animal. In humans the embryo stage lasts for 2 months.

XY Chromosomes - Male pair of sex chromosomes

XX Chromosomes - Female pair of sex chromosomes

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B1 - Keywords

Alleles - Different versions of the same gene 

Dominant allele - An allele that will show up in a organism even if a different allele of the same gene is present. You only need to have one copy of a dominant allele to have the feature it produces.

Recessive allele - An allele that will only show up in a organism when a dominant allele of the gene is not present. You must have two copies of a recessive allele to have the feature it produces.

Phenotype - A description of the physical characteristics that an organism has (often related to a particular gene)

Genotype - A description of the genes an organism has

Homozygous - An individual with both alleles of a particular gene the same

Cystic Fibrosis - An inherited disorder caused by recessive alleles

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B1 - Keywords

Termination - When medicine or surgery treatment is used to end a pregnancy 

Carrier - Someone who has the recessive allele for a characteristic or disease but does not have the characteristic or disease itself

Ethics - A set of principles that may show how to behave ina  certain situation

Genetic Test - A test to find out whether a person has a particular DNA sequence or pattern

False negative - A wrong test result, the results say that a person does not have a medical condition but this is incorrect

False positive - A wrong test result, the results say that a person has a medical condition but this is incorrect

Genetic Screening - Testing a population for a particular allele


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B1 - Keywords

Pre implantation genetic diagnostic (PGD) - Technical term for embryo selection. Embryo's fertilized outside the body are tested for genetic disorders. Only healthy embryos are put into the mothers uterus

Regulation - a rule that can be enforced by authority such as the government

A sexual reproduction - when a new individual is produced from just one parent

Specialized - A specialized cell is adapted for a particular job

Clones - A new cell or individual made by a sexual reproduction, a clone has the same genes as it parent.

Stem cells - an unspecialized animal cell that can divide and develop into a specialized cell

Unspecialized - A cell that has not yet developed into a particular type of cell

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