Augustus' Titles

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Imperator

43 BC - First used as a temporary military title.

30 BC - Officially used as a praenomen (first name). It was only used in the Eastern provinces.

Augustus refers to this particular title in the Res Gesate: "I was twenty-one times saluted as imperator."

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Princeps Senatus

28 BC - After revising the senatorial list for the first time, Augustus' name was put at the top of the senatorial list and he was allowed to say his opinion first in the senate meetings.

Augustus refers to his title of princeps senatus in the 'Res Gestae': "Up to the time of writing I have been princeps senatus for forty years." 

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Augustus

27 BC - This title was given to Augustus by the senate. It increased his dignitas as it meant 'one to be revered' but did not add to his power. 

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Princeps

27 BC - Princeps translates as 'first citizen' and was given to leading men of the republic. It gave authority but not power. 

This can be found in the 'Res Gestae': "While I was the leading citizen..."

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Pontifex Maximus

12 BC - Augustus was offered the title of ponitfex maximus while Lepidus was alive but he refused it. Several years later, when Lepidus died, he succeeded him. It made him the head of the priesthoods and of the state religion. It also gave him control over political and judicial procedure. 

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Pater Patriae

2 BC - Cicero had previously been given the title pater patriae, which translates as 'Father of the Country.' This particular title was inscribed on the monument in his new forum which had been opened during the same year. 

Augustus refers to this title quite often in the Res Gestae as he had trouble with succession during his career and instead emphasised his fatherly role over the people of Rome. 

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