- The first Roman emporer Augustus (formerly known as Octavian) was the nephew of Julius Caeser who was made his heir at the last minute in Caeser's will.
- Octavian and Marc Antony fought over who was to gain sole leadership of the Roman Empire, and they began warring against each other. At the Battle of Actium in 31 B.C., Octavian defeated Antony and his ally Cleopatra of Egypt, consolidating individual power.
- Four years later, he assumed the title Augustus, meaning 'revered one'.
- Due to doubts among the Roman people, Augustus commissioned several poets to help solidify his claim to imperial power. Virgil in particular used propaganda in the Aenied to assert Augustus' supposed divine lineage.
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