Audience Theory

  • Created by: VanesszaF
  • Created on: 22-04-19 18:52

Gerbner: Cultivation

  • Exposure to repeated patterns of representation over long peroiods of time can shape and influence the way people precive the world around them.
  • Cultivation reinforces mainstream values.
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Jenkins: Fandom

  • Fans are active participants in the construction and circulation of meanings.
  • Textual poaching: Fans appropiate texts and read them in ways that aren't authorised by creators.
  • Participatory culture: Fans construct their social identities through mass cultural images.
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Shirky: End of Audience

  • The internet has had a profound effect on the relations between media and individuals.
  • Audience members as passive consumers of mass media is no longer tenable in the age of the internet-media consumers are now the producers who 'speak back' to the media.
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Bandura: Media Effects Theory

  • The media can implant ideas in the mind of the audience directly as they are passive.
  • Audiences acquire attitudes, emotioanl responses and new conduct via modelling.
  • Representations of transgressive behaviour are irritable.
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Hall: Reception Theory

  • Communication is a process of encoding by producers and decoding by audiences, 3 hypothetical positions to decode meaning:
  • Hegemonic
  • Negotiated
  • Oppositional
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Young & Rubicam: 4 Consumers

7 Types  of media product consumer (Psychographics):

  • Mainstreamers
  • Aspirers
  • Explorers
  • Succeeders
  • Reformers
  • Strugglers
  • Resigned
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Katz & Lazarfeld: 2 Step Flow Model

  • Like the hypodermic Needle model only a intermediary is introduced.
  • Opinion leaders: The individuals with the most access and understanding of the media influence and intervine between message and audience.
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Maslow: Hierarchy of needs

A basic model of human motivation- why anyone does or needs anything:

  • Physiological Needs
  • Safety Needs
  • Love Needs
  • Esteem Needs
  • Self Actualisation Needs
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Katz & Blumler: Uses and Gratifications

Assumes the audience is active and consumes media for 4 different purposes and functions:

  • Diversion
  • Survelliance
  • Personal Identity
  • Personal Relationships
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