Weiners Model of Attribution
- Locus of Causality
Locus of causality - indicates whether attribution relates to internal or external factors of the performer. effort and ability are internal while difficulty and luck are external.
Stability - Indicates whether attributions are stable or unstable. stable factors is permanent and unchangeable e.g. ability and unstable are temporary and can be changed e.g. luck.
Reasons for success and Failure
Coach should attribute failure to external factors to maintain confidence.
e.g. suggesting the opposition were lucky
internal attribution should be used to reinforce success
e.g. achievement is the result of ability
high achievers tend to attribute success to internal factors and failure to external factors. failure is seen as a temporary set back (attribution bias) high achievers tend to remain persistent.
low achievers attribute success to external factors which takes away confidence and could cause learned helplessness.
Changing the performers perception of the causes of failure
Ability is stable so the individual will have no way of changing it
effort is unstable and internal so the individual can experience pride in any positive changes. it can be controlled by the performer which is good as the fear of having no control can cause learned helplessness
attribution retraining involves focusing the reason for failure onto internal, unstable and controllable factors.
help raise confidence, convert avoidance behaviour and encourage mastery orientation within and individual promoting lifelong sports participation.