G-d as OMNIPOTENT - AQUINAS
- G-d = omnipotent in relation to creating + maintaining Earth - single timeless action. (Note: adopted from Aristotle.)
- Beyond this he is wholly simple, and cannot act.
- God = non-physical being, he = incorporeal \ cannot swim (answers can he create a rock so heavy he cannot lift it e.g. he can’t lift is as not physical - PARDOX OF THE STONE)
- He cannot do ‘pseudo-tasks’, e.g. create a square circle
- Also God is perfectly good, so cannot commit evil.
G-d as OMNIPOTENT - DESCARTES
- God created all things, including logic + can change logic to fit his actions thus He can do things we regard as logically impossible, by changing logic
- Human minds cannot comprehend the omnipotence of God, so cannot understand what limits him
- Omnipotent - can do everything (according to Descartes) - scholars dislike this idea - means g-d can do eveyrhting without consequences thus cannot be relied upon
G-d as OMNIPOTENT - ANSLEM
- God = “that than which nothing greater can be conceived” thus God can do anything
G-d as OMNIPOTENT - VARDY
- God created Universe in balance, to exist on its own
- God = self-limiting, as if he were to act in the Universe it would throw the Universe out of balance.
- God = much more limited than Christians believe
G-d as OMNIPOTENT - MACQUARRIE
- Aspects of God nature will always remain unknown by his love of Humanity (which he imposed himself)
- God = not limited by logic/physicality/time, as they are human concepts
- The Power of God = different to our own, so we can only talk of it using analogies
G-d as EVERLASTING - MOLTMANN
- If God = timeless, he cannot change thus cannot love, as relationships require change
G-d as EVERLASTING - SWINBURNE
- God interacts with people in the Bible “I have heard your prayers and seen your tears.” Isaiah 38:5
- However AUGUSTINE disagrees, “God is not a man…that he may change his mind.” Numbers 23:19
- Note: If God is impassable and timeless, how can he answer prayers and cause miracles?
G-d as OMNISCIENCE - BOETHUIS
- If God knows all our actions and is always right he can’t judge us God knows but doesn’t cause
- He knows what happens - as outside of time - he cannot ause it as he sees everything in eternal present
- It = free will of humans that causes events, G-d knows it because he can see all of time as one
G-d as OMNISCIENCE - SWINBURNE
- God = everlasting thus he knows us so well he can predict our actions
G-d as OMNIPOTENT - AUGUSTINE
- God is outside of time therefore sees all of time at once - has no concept of past/future
G-d as OMNISCIENCE - SCHlEIERMACHER
- God’s knowledge of our actions similar to knowledge of a friend, but more accurate + His omniscience = eternal
G-D AS TIMELESS - AUGUSTINE
- If God moves through time, what did he do before he created the earth?
- God transcends the idea of ‘before’ and ‘after’
- Uses the Bible to support God as timeless (against Swinburne)
G-D AS TIMELESS - AQUINAS
- God = not affected by time/space either. He = immutable.
- Time is an aspect of the created world thus God is not affected by time
- G-d = impassoble; G-d cannot be changed by any external factors so he cannot experience pain/pleasure. If he was he would no longer be perfect
G-D AS TIMELESS - SCHlEIERMACHER
- Universe must have always existed, because cannot have acted to create it
- Wholly simple + timeless
G-D AS TIMELESS - BOETHUIS
- God cannot be everlasting + omniscient at the same time, as he would have to wait to see the outcome
- Better to think of God as sitting on top of a mountain, watching an entire road, rather that travelling along the road.
- G-d = able to observe everything in an eternal present
- G-d = not subject to change - he = beginningless + endless
- G-d = seen as personal. If he = timeless then that means he cannot answers prayers or interact with world. However, by saying G-d = timeless it means he = not subject to change - first in with traditional teaching of G-d
- Middle knowledge - consists of knowledge of what would happen if certain choices were made. Does exist in quantum physics + muliverse
- Middle knowledge = that knowledge of G-d dealing with what individuals will do in a given set of circumstances. G-d has infinte set of potential circumstances that could exist + knows all actual choices that would be made by individuals in each set.
- G-d = more like a force than a person
- No human characterisitcs
- G-d = an absoulte being
- Problems: how can people have a meaningful realtiosnhup with a 'force' or 'impersonal spirit'
TALKING OF G-D
- Cataphatic way --> Via postiva - talking of G-d postively
- Apophatic way --> Via negativa - talking of G-d negatively
G-D AS PERSONAL
- Speak of G-d as personal = to refer to him whom humans can have a realtionship, one that reflects their own relationships with each other
- SPINOZA - argues although humans should love G-d. Personal 2-way relationships = impossible; G-d = perfect - this cannot be altered as He = unchanging - he cannot love
- However, others argued that G-d has human characteristics + we can have relationship with him. He repsonds to prayers. G-d may be seen as being a 'merciful father'
G-D AS PANTOKRATOR
G-D AS PANTOKRATOR
- Traditional christian view - suggests rather than G-d being able to everything, he holds the power over all things i.e. omnipotence
INCONSISTENT TRIAD - PROBLEM OF EVIL - MACKIE
INCONSISTENT TRIAD - PROBLEM OF EVIL - MACKIE -
- Mackie devised inconsistent triad - each corner contains proposition that rel believers say "is esstential to their faith" (G-d omnipotent/benevolence) or which = difficult to deny evil exists. The truth of any 2 corners of triangle entails falsehood of 3rd corner
- Idea of G-d being omnibenevolent contradicts other attributes.
G-D AS ETERNAL
G-d as TIMELESS as 2 meanings:
- G-d = timeless - sees past, present + future as one. He = outside time.
- G-d = everlasting - He = within time
- AQUINAS - time + change = inseparable; since G-d = unchanging, he = also timeless
- BOETHIUS - G-d = changless + doesn't exist in time
- SWINBURNE - G-d exists at all points inside time, but doesn't exist outside time
- ANSELM - G-d = eternal because nothing can contain him