Attachment Studies

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Robertson and Robertson

John Study 

They made a series of films were young children in situions were seperated from their primary care giver. John had to be care for in a residential nursery while his mother was in hospital having anothe baby. 

On day free of his seperation from his mother, john became distressed. When his mother came to collect him on day 9 he screamed, cried and struggled away from her. When his father rrived he escaped to him.

The strange enviroment would result in the seperation being more distressing than norml.

Strengths -

This study is based on a real life situation, this means we can generalise it to real life.

Weaknesses -

As this is a case study, it is only on a small sample, meaning we can't generalise this to a wider population. 

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Czech twins (Koluchova 1972)

Privation case study

-Born 1960, the mother died in birth and the twins were put in care until they were 18 months old.

-They then returned into the care of their father, who worked away alot, and step mother, who already had 4 children from previous relationship.

- The stepmother kept the twins in a cellar, starved them, and beat them. Their bedding was some plastic sheeting.

-By the age of seven when they were discovered by authorities the twins had no speech, were terrified of people, they couldn't walk and had a sub normal IQ.

- The twins were then adopted by two sisters who gave them exceptional care.

- The developed into normal human beings and acheived social, emotional and intellectual normality. (Married/jobs/children)

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Genie (Curtiss 1977)

Privation Case Study

- Genia had a mentally unstable father who kept her isolated in her bedroom with the curtains drawn.

-She was tied to a potty chair by day and locked in a cage at night.

-Whenever Genie tried to communicate her father would beat her.

- Genie's mother and brother were not allowed to talk to Genie,

-Genie was rescued at the age of 13 when her mother ran away.

- When she was discovered she had very limited speech.

- She then went on to be fostered by one of the Psychologists that was studying her (Susan Curtiss)

- She began to show progress with speech and attachments.

- Genie was plaed into care due to legal issues. Where she was Physically abused and regressed back into her original state.

- When Genie was breifly reunited with Susan, she showed anger towards her.

- Genie lives in an institution for people with learning difficulties.

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Rutter at el

Effects of institutionalisation

A longitudinal study comparing Romanian orphans who were late or early adopted by UK families.

WITH UK born adoptees who were placed in families before they were 6 months old.

The Romanian orphans went into orphanage between 1 and 2 weeks old. Conditions at the orphanage were very poor. 

-58 babies were adopted before 6 months old - early adopted.

-48 babies were adopted between 2 and 4 years old - late adopted.

Some of these children were followed up at ages 4, 6 and 11 using interview and observations of their behaviour. 

Age 6 - Rutter found disinhibited attachment (attantion seeking behaviour, being over friendly with strangers and problems with peer relationships.)

Age 11 - Rutter found that the disinhibited behaviour had continued in many of the adoptees behaviours. Of the 83 Romanian children with disinhibited behaviour at age 6, 45 of them still showed this 5 years later. 

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Hodges and Tizard (1989)

Followed a group of 65 British children from early life to adulthood. The children had be placed in the institution before the age of 4 months and were compared with a control group who were raised at home.

All children were assessed at regular intervals up until the age of 16. By the age of 4, 24 of the children in the institution had been adopted. 15 of them had returned to their natural homes. and the rest remained in the institution.

There is no real chance to form a relationship in an institution as each child had around 50 carers. 

The children were asses on emotional and social development t the ages of 4, 6 and 8 through interviews and questionnaires. 

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Day Care - Positive

Positive effects - social develpment 

All children should feel comfortable (ACSFC)

Andersson - Research in Sweden. Day care resulted better socialbility and play ability compared to those not in day care.

Clarke-Stewart - 150 children who experience different types of day care. Nursery based was found to be better for social development than family based.

Schindler et al - Day care produces more helpful and co-operative toddlers.

Field et al - Full time day care = better co-operative play, than part time day care.

Campbell et al - Longitudinal study (Sweden) quality of day care and childrens social development. Observations, interviews, questionnaires. 

High quality care & short days = good social development.

Poor quality care + Long days = Inferior social competence, get bored, tired and frustrated.

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Daycare - Negative

Negative effects - agression

Bad management has caused bother (BMHCB)

Belsky - Longitudinal study. Over 1000 kids in the US, followed from birth. Found day care assosiated with more agression towards peers and also less obiedient.

Maccoby & Lewis - More hours spent in day care before four and a half, increases behaviour problems at school. Lower social skills and conflict with teachers.

Hofferth - Over 500 children. Long hours day care = More agression.

Clarke-Stewart at el - Unstimulating and unstructure enviroment = agression compared to stimulating and structured enviroment. 

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