Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg
Conducted meta-analysis of different strange situations in different countries
Aim: look at different attachment types in a range of cultures
32 cases - all observed mother-infant pairs and classified them into the three attachment types
- Greater difference in attachment types within the same country than there was between countries - eg. A Japanese sample was more similar to two US samples than another Japanese sample - differences between urban/rural samples
- Overall secure attachment was most common across all countries
- Insecure-resistant most common in Japan and Israel
- Insecure-avoidant most common in Germany
Concluded that attachment type broadly the same across cultures - variations due to different parenting techniques
Evalutation - Ethnocentric
Point: Strange situation is ethnocentric - designed by Americans for middle class American mothers and children
Children raised differently will respond differently to stages in strange situation
eg. Takahashi - Japanese children were so distressed when left alone procedure had to stop so classified as insecure-resistant, despite being secure up to that point.
Japanese children not used to being separated at all in early years
Conclusion:Strange situation not valid measure of attachment type - measures fear in these children rather than attachment
Evaluation - Ethics
- Raises ethical issues as the strange situation causes distress for the infants
- eg. 90% of the procedures had to be stopped in the experiments envolving Japanese infants - when infant was left alone as were crying 'desparately'
- Comment: Strange situation was meant to be constructed to cause no more stress than encountered in every day life - Japanese infants never left alone so was more stress than use to. Caused terror.
- Breaches protection of Pps