core theory - bowlby
- he belived a child needs one primary attachment ( monotrohy, usually with their mother).
- he also belived that they have a critical period for developing attachments 2/3 years.
- he belived i something called privation and deprivation.
- privation ( when a child does not form an attachment to a caregiver).
- deprivation ( when a child has formed an attachment to a caregiver, but it is broken).
evaluation of bowlby
- critics argue that children can make multiple attachments.
- bowbly said that there was a critical period but other example show it can be formed after this.
- bowlby argued the effects of deprivation were irreversible, others argue against this.
alternative theory - behaviourist theory
- behaviourists argue attachment is a result of learning (nurture).
- behaviour is reinforced, when a child is affectionate, their parents reward them and encourage their attached behaviour.
- classical and operant conditioning (associations between parent and getting needs met).
- social learning theory (modelling of others).
core study - Hazen and shaver
aim- wanted to see if attachment type in childhood reflected attachment type in adulthood.
method- questionaire was used to collect information from an opportunity sample of a group of people aged between 14 and 82. it was carried out in the US and was called the love quiz. there were two variabes that were measured: persons infant type and their attitude to their current adult relationship.
results- 1200 replies were recieved and 620 were analysed. adults with secure infant attachment had happy relationships as adults.
limitations of the study
- sampling method may have caused a unrepresentative sample.
- questionaires rely too much on respondents giving honest and accurate answers.
attachment - an enduring bond formed with a significant other.
seperation protest - when an individual goes into distress when their attached figure leaves them.
stranger anxiety - when an individual shows anxiety and distress in the presence of an unfamiliar person.
secure attachment - when a child and caregiver have a relationship of trust and security.
insecure avoidant - the child is quite independant of the caregiver.
insecure ambivalent - a chld can be demanding and awkard with the caregiver.
applications - care of children
care of children in hospitals - ensure the child knows exactly what is happening; try to allow for regular visits/ primary caregiver being allowed to stay in the hospital.
day care - give meaningful activites, try to keep the same staff.
care of children in the family - keep continuity of caregivers.