• Created by: khan
  • Created on: 12-05-13 13:27

core theory - bowlby

- he belived a child needs one primary attachment ( monotrohy, usually with their mother).

- he also belived that they have a critical period for developing attachments 2/3 years.

- he belived i something called privation and deprivation.

- privation ( when a child does not form an attachment to a caregiver).

- deprivation ( when a child has formed an attachment to a caregiver, but it is broken).

evaluation of bowlby

- critics argue that children can make multiple attachments.

- bowbly said that there was a critical period but other example show it can be formed after this.

- bowlby argued the effects of deprivation were irreversible, others argue against this.

1 of 5

alternative theory - behaviourist theory

- behaviourists argue attachment is a result of learning (nurture).

- behaviour is reinforced, when a child is affectionate, their parents reward them and encourage their attached behaviour.

- classical and operant conditioning (associations between parent and getting needs met).

- social learning theory (modelling of others).

2 of 5

core study - Hazen and shaver

aim- wanted to see if attachment type in childhood reflected attachment type in adulthood.

method- questionaire was used to collect information from an opportunity sample of a group of people aged between 14 and 82. it was carried out in the US and was called the love quiz. there were two variabes that were measured: persons infant type and their attitude to their current adult relationship.

results- 1200 replies were recieved and 620 were analysed. adults with secure infant attachment had happy relationships as adults.

limitations of the study

- sampling method may have caused a unrepresentative sample.

- questionaires rely too much on respondents giving honest and accurate answers.

3 of 5

key concepts

attachment - an enduring bond formed with a significant other.

seperation protest - when an individual goes into distress when their attached figure leaves them.

stranger anxiety - when an individual shows anxiety and distress in the presence of an unfamiliar person.

secure attachment - when a child and caregiver have a relationship of trust and security.

insecure avoidant - the child is quite independant of the caregiver.

insecure ambivalent - a chld can be demanding and awkard with the caregiver.

4 of 5

applications - care of children

care of children in hospitals - ensure the child knows exactly what is happening; try to allow for regular visits/ primary caregiver being allowed to stay in the hospital.

day care - give meaningful activites, try to keep the same staff.

care of children in the family - keep continuity of caregivers.

5 of 5




A lovely summary which would suit both GCSE and A Level Psychology students!



They need to add pictures and more facts about that topic

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Development of personality resources »