WHAT IS ATTACHMENT?
WHAT DOES THE LEARNING THEROGY ARGUE?
EXPLAIN OPERANT CONDITIONING
WHAT IS POSITVE REINFORCEMENT?
WHAT IS NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT?
CAN BEHAVIOUR BE BOTH POSITVELY AND NEGATIVELY REINFORCED?
Reciprocal emotional bond between two people
attachments are based on the priciples of operant and classical conditioning
learning by reinforcment
1. positive reinforcement: when behaviour is rewarded with something pleasant which increases likelihood of behaviour being repeated
2. negative reinforcemnt: behavious results in substraction of something unpleasant, behaviour more likely to be repeated
Yes, e.g. baby is crying - caregiver try and console the child (negative reinforcement for parent) - crying has produced positive reinforcement for baby and more likely to repeat crying behaviour
EXPLAIN CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
WHAT IS AN UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS?
WHAT IS AN UNCONDITIONED RESPONSE?
HOW DOES HARLOW'S MONKEYS DISPROVE THE LEARNING THEORY?
HOW HAS SHAFFER AND EMERSON DISAPROVED THE LEARNING THEORY?
Learning by association
- Food (UCS) = Happy Baby (UCR)
- Mother (Neutral stimulus) = Food (UCS) = Happy Baby (UCR)
- Mother (Conditoned stimulus) = Happy Baby (conditioned response)
Aspect of enviroment that produces automatic unlearned response
Unlearned refelx response to unconditional stimulus
Showed attachment is based on comfert not feeding - baby monkeys uses soft mother as safe base
39% of babies first attchments not to those who performed physical care, but rather those who are sensitive and rewarding to the baby
WHAT DOES BOWLBY'S THEORY OF ATTACHMENT ARGUE?
WHAT DOES BOWLBY MEAN BY MONOTROPY?
WHAT DOES BOWLBY MEAN BY ADAPTIVE AND INNATE?
WHAT'S MEANT BY THE SENSITIVE PERIOD?
WHAT'S MEANT BY SAFE BASE?
WHAT'S MEANT BY THE INTERNAL WORKING MODEL?
WHAT'S MEANT BY THE CONTIUITY HYPOTHESIS?
Attachment was an evolved mechanism that ensures the survival of the child
formarion of a primary attchment to one caregiver - the person who respode best the childs social releases
Children have innate drive to become attached - increases chance of survival
crucial period of time for attachments to form (-3/3 years)
A secure base where a child can explore it's surroundings
template for future relationships, including a model of how you and other people are likely to behave - developed in early childhood and created by attachment child forms
idea their is a link between early and later attachments
WHAT WAS HAZAN AND SHAVERS AIM?
WHAT DID THEY FIND?
WHAT DID THEY CONCLUDE?
HOW HAS THEIR RESEARCH BEEN CRITISIZED?
HAD HAVE SHAFFER AND EMERSON CRITICISED BOWLBY'S IDEA OF MONOTROPY?
WHAT IMPORTANT RELATIONSHIPS DID BOWLBY IGNORE?
Interested in Bowlby's IWM - wanted to see if their was a correlation between ifants attchment type and future approach to romantic relationships
high correlation betweem childhood and adult attachment types
evidence to support continuity hypothesis - however some people changed from their infant attachment type
People had to recall child memories - might not be accurate / self reporting - might not be truthful answers
18 month 87% of babies had multiple attachments - 1/3 were strongly attached to farther (stongest bond not neccesarily with mother)
Relationships with farthers and siblings