Attachment essay plans


Describe and evaluate research into caregiver-infa


It is hard to know what is happening when observing infants

Interactional synchrony

Controlled observations capture fine detail

Observations don't tell us the purpose of reciprocity and interactional synchrony


Socially sensitive research: working mothers

1 of 10

Describe and evaluate schaffer's stages of attachm

Asocial stage

Indiscriminate stage

Difficulty measuring the asocial stage

Specific attachment

Multiple attachment

Conflicting evidence for multiple attachment

Measuring multiple attachment


Schaffer and Emerson used limited behavioural measures of attachment

2 of 10

Describe and evaluate animal studies of attachment

Harlow's research (procedure)

Theoretical value


Maternally deprived monkeys as adults

Practical value

Ethical issues


Can Harlow's findings really be applied to humans?

3 of 10

Describe and evaluate learning theory as an explan

Classical conditioning

Counter-evidence from animal research

Operant conditioning

Counter-evidence from human research

Ignores other factors associated with forming attachments


Some elements of condiitioning could still be involved

4 of 10

Describe and evaluate Bowlby's monotropic theory o

Monotropy + social releasers

Mixed evidence for monotropy

Critical period

Support for social releasers

Internal working model

Support for internal working model


Monotropy is a socially sensitive idea

5 of 10

Describe and evaluate the strange situation


Support for validity


Good reliabilty

The test may be culture-bound


There is at least one more attachment type

6 of 10

Describe and evaluate research into cultural varia


Large samles


Measured differences between countries and not cultures

Method of assessment may be biased


The Strange Situation lacks validity

7 of 10

Describe and evaluate Bowlby's theory of maternal

44 thieves study

The evidence may be poor

Separation versus deprivation

Counter development

Effects on development

The critical period is actually more of a sensitive period


Animal studies show effects of maternal deprivation

8 of 10

Describe and evaluate research into romanian orpha


Real-life application


Lack of extraneous varibles

The Romanian orphanages were not typical


The long-term effects are not yet clear

9 of 10

Describe and evaluate research into the influence

Myron-Wilson and Smith study

Evidence of continuity of attachment type is mixed

Hazan and Shaver

Most studies have issues of validity

Association does not mean causality


Self-report is conscious but internal working models are not

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