Atoms

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Atomic Structure

Atoms consist of electrons surrounding a nucleus that contains protons and neutrons.

The number of protons in the nucleus is called the atomic number.

The mass number of an atom is the TOP number.

The atomic number (number of protons) is the BOTTOM number.

Sharing electrons - i.e. covalent bonding

Transferring electrons - i.e. ionic bonding

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Reactions

The rates last on 4 things :

  • Temperature
  • Concentration (or pressure for gases)
  • Catalyst
  • Size of Particles (or surface area)

Exothermic reactions GIVES OUT heat i.e.

  • Burning
  • Neutralisation reactions between acids and alkalis

Endothermic reactions TAKE IN heat i.e.

  • Electrolysis - is the process by which ionic substances are broken down into simpler substances using electricity.

Haber Process = Low Temperature and High Temperature

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