Aswan Dam

This card is to be used as a simplified version of the Aswan Dam casestudy for the module fresh water in IB geography

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The need for Aswan Dam and how it was obtained

The river nile constantly floods...

  • attempts were made to control flooding for 2000 years
  • 1952- construction began of the Aswan Dam

The Soviet Union funded the Aswan Dam.

The aid in which it was given is known as tied aid- egypt had to give something in return for the dam! (arms)

The Aswan Dam is know as a multi-purpose scheme:

  • stores water and used to irrigate crops
  • provides hydroelectricity
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Advantages of the Aswan Dam


  • 50% of electricity consumption (Egypt) made by Hydroelectricity
  • Silt build up around L.Nasser (fertile soils)
  • More food processing and cotton industry (higher crop yields)
  • Land reclaimation (more agricultural land)
  • L.Nasser = protection against flooding and famine
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Disadvantages of the Aswan Dam


  • Silt- very little as you go north of the Dam (no fertile land)
  • Evaporating L.Nasser lead to water loss -> shallow waters spred dieases (e.g malaria)
  • No silt = chemical fertiliers = water pollution
  • 120,000 relocated
  • Incresed amount of irrigated land (artifically watered)
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Costs of the Dam

  • Seismic stress- earthquake of 1981 (thought to be the caused by the dam)- higher water levels=higher seismic activity
  • higher eveporation
  • Aswan Dam provides 50% less than expected water
  • Increased stagnant water=Bilharzia
  • Crop yields droped by a third from slainization (salty water-toxic for plants)
  • Shortage of water (not equally distrubted)
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