Aspects of Narrative within Thomas Hardy poems - TIME AND SEQUENCE

If you study English Literature at AS level with AQA, then these revision cards will help most with Section B of the paper, where it will ask you to write about three texts in terms of a selected aspect of narrative. These revision cards show key points about each aspect of narrative from the Hardy poems: The Voice, Under the Waterfall, Convergence of the Twain, Neutral Tones and The Haunter.

This set focuses on Time and Sequence.

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Time and Sequence - The Voice

Retrospective - looking into the past - "But as at first when our day was fair"

Caesura in "Thus I; faltering forward" shows how his life is broken down, and 'forward' shows how he uncertain about his future without her.

Common cycle of grief-related emotions:
- Stanza 1: anger
- Stanza 2: confusion
- Stanza 3: depression
- Stanza 4: acceptance/perhaps moving on 

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Time and Sequence - Under the Waterfall

A domestic situation triggers the retrospective narrative: "plunge my arm...basin of water"

The flashback triggers many different emotions for the narrator by using an oxymoron "The sweet sharp sense of a fugitive day"

The tense change at the start of the flashback emphasises that this is firmly in the past, e.g. "walked"

The phrase "My lover and I walked under a sky" is lyrical and romantic, and the inclusive/possessive pronouns create the nostalgic emotion, created at the date

Towards the end of the poem, where it uses "edge" it could insinuate the break up, as an edge traditionally connotates with danger

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Time and Sequence - Convergence of the Twain

Roman numerals could be seen as the reminder of time, and the Titanic's destiny was only a matter of time.

The first 6 stanzas talk about the ship, and from the 7th stanza onwards, nature is introduced

The Titanic's end is foreshadowed by "steel chambers, late the pyres", as this lexis strongly connotates with funerals

Religion is introduced - "Immanent Will" which could imply the Titanic's fate was decided by the powers at be

Clear sense of ending with alliteration of "consummation comes" and the metaphor of "jars two hemispheres" and it strongly shows a sense of "human vs nature"

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Time and Sequence - Neutral Tones

All past tense and retrospective.

Pathetic fallacy "winter day" emphasises the relationship's end, as it is the end of year, and death of nature.

"Keen lessons that love deceives" presents a form of resolve, as he has learnt a lesson.

However, there's no overall uplifting change in opinion, which makes the whole poem pessimistic and bleak.

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Time and Sequence - The Haunter

"I haunt here nightly" tells us that this is a daily/frequent occurence, which could imply that Hardy's grief and guilt haunts him daily.

There are 2 phases of grief:
Stanza 1, 2 and 3: turmoil and grief
Stanza 4: closure, resolution and grief

Flashback: "into old aisles where the past is all to him" which shows how she misses him and the good times they had.

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