AS Sociology Education

EDUCATION.

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  • Created by: Chantel
  • Created on: 24-05-12 22:17

History of education

Tripartite System

  • part of the 1944 Butler education act
  • 'free secondary education for all'
  • 11+ selection

11+ test determined what school you went to:

Secondary modern:

  • for those who didnt pass the 11+
  • inferior teaching
  • 85% pupils in any area went to these schools

Grammar schools:

  • those who passed the 11+
  • better teaching and facilities
  • pupil body = mainly middle class children
  • 15% pupils went to these schools
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Tripartite System continued

Technical schools:

  • those who showed good pratical and technical skills
  • some areas didnt have technical schools
  • 5% of total number of pupils went to these schools

Strengths of Tripartite system:

  • the numeracy,reading and writing skills of the population increased
  • education was free for all  - no need to worry

Weaknesses of Tripartite System:

  • Late developers: those who failed the 11+ sometimes matured academically later in life but they had missed the chane of a grammar school education
  • Social class: the 11+ was seen to be unfair to working class pupils, the middle class could get private tuition for the exam - created class division.
  • Failures: 85% saw themselves as failures, most leaving school without no qualifications.
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Comprehensive Schooling - 1965

  • introduced to create proper equality
  • 'all abilities and social classes under one roof'
  • abolished 11+ selection in most areas of the country

Advantages:

  • class division eliminated 
  • more facilities and greater range of subjects
  • chance to move up streams
  • allows for late developers to excel
  • fewer leave without qualification.
  • less working class talent is wasted.

Disadvantages:

  • bright children held back - however few grammar schools exsisted to cream off these pupils
  • still class division - lower streams - working class, higher streams - middle class
  • too large and impersonal - hard to enforce discipline
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1988 Education Reform Act

  • by Margaret Thatcher

Main features:

  • marketisation
  • work related courses
  • league tables
  • parental choice
  • gcses
  • national cirriculum
  • sats tests

COMPETITION

CHOICE

MARKETING

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1988 Education Reform Act

NATIONAL CIRRICULUM: 

  • core subjects
  • option subjects

Advantage: everyone is taught the same thing regardless of area you live in or if you move

Disadvantage: limited choice of subjects

SATS TESTS: age 7,11,14

Advantage: idea of where pupil is at, level, help raise standards

Disadvantage: stress for young children

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1988 Education Reform Act

GCSES

  • replaced o'levels and cses

Advantage: created one examination for pupils

Disadvantage: quickly developed into tiers, if foundation cant get top grade

LEAGUE TABLES

  • Come out anually after exams, SATS, GCSES, A levels results

Advantage: give parents info when choosing schools

Disadvantage: results do not reflect school environment

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1988 Education Reform Act

Work related courses:

  • vocational courses - apprenticeships, btecs, nvq, gnvqs

Advantage: suits pupils who are good at coursework

Disadvantage: seen as low status by educational institutes and people, schools use this to get more points on league tables.

Marketisation: advertising your school

  • booklets, open days, prospectus, videos

Advantage: raises standards, can help gain consumers, competition between schools

Disadvantage: expensive, waste of money if alot of consumers are not gained

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Marketisation

PARENTAL CHOOSERS:

PRIVELLEGED:

  • STRONGLY MOTIVATED TO CHOOSE SCHOOL FOR THEIR CHILDREN 
  • ABILITY AND TIME TO DECIDE ON APPROPRIATE SCHOOL
  • CULTURAL AND MATERIAL CAPITAL
  • USUALLY MIDDLE CLASS
  • INSIDE KNOWLEDGE ON EDUCATION SYSTEM
  • PREPARED TO MOVE OR PAY FOR PRIVATE DUCATION TO RECIVE BEST EDUCATION

SEMI-SKILLED:

  • JUST AS PASSIONATE AS PRIVELLEGED
  • LACK OF INSIDE KNOWLEDGE ON ED SYSTEM
  • LACK OF MATERIAL AND CULTURAL CAPITAL
  • LOCAL SCHOOL OVER OVERSUSCRIBED SCHOOL
  • PROBLEMS INTERPRETING LEAGUE TABLES
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Marketisation

DISCONNECTED CHOOSERS:

  • CHILD'S WELFARE OVER ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE
  • DO NOT OWN A CAR, NO EASY ACCESS TO PUBLIC TRANSPORT
  • MORE ABOUT WHATS CONVIENIENT 
  • UNDERSUSCRIBED SCHOOL
  • WORKING CLASS
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NEW LABOUR POLICES EST. 1997

  • NUMERACY AND LITERACY HOURS (EQUALITY)
  • TARGET SETTING (EQAULITY + MARKETISATION)
  • REDUCTION OF CLASS SIZES (EQUALITY)
  • EDUCATION ACTION ZONES (EQUALITY)
  • CIRRICULUM 2000 (EQUALITY)
  • SURE START (EQUALITY)
  • HOMEWORK CLUBS(EQUALITY)
  • ACADEMIES (MARKETISATION)
  • EMA(EQUALITY)
  • INCREASING SCHOOL LEAVING AGE AT 18(EQUALITY)
  • NAMING AND SHAMING (MARKETISATION)
  • SPECIALIST SCHOOLS (MARKETISATION)

CRITICISM OF NEW LABOUR POLICIES:

  • VARIETY OF SCHOOL TYPES DOES NOT DEAL WITH INEQUALITY
  • WHITTY 2002 SEES EMA HELPING WORKING CLASS STUDENTS ON AT POST 16 BUT HIGHER EDUCATION FEES STOP THEM FROM GOING FURTHER
  • SELECTIVE SCHOOLS + FEE PAYING SCHOOLS EXSIST, EQUALITY CANNOT OCCUR
  • MARKETISATION GLOSSES OVER THE UNDERLYING ISSUES ON INEQUALITY
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COALITION POLICIES

  • ACADEMIES
  • INCREASING SCHOOL LEAVING AGE
  • ENGLISH BACCALAUREATE
  • TUITION FEES
  • PUPIL PREMIUM
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VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

YOUTH TRAINING SCHEME 

  • ONE YEAR TRAINING SCHEME COMBINING WORK EXPERIENCE WITH EDUCATION FOR SCHOOL LEAVERS

CRITICISMS

  • SKILLS TAUGHT AT YTS ONLY APPROPRIATE FOR JOBS IN SECONDARY LABOUR MARKET - UNSKILLED, INSECURE, LOW PAID JOBS

NVQS

  • VOCATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS FOR PARTICULAR OCCUPATIONS
  • JOB SPECIFIC QUALIFICATIONS

GNVQS

  • STUDIED IN SCHOOL, ALTERNATIVE TO ACADEMIC COURSES, E.G LIESURE AND TOURSIM AND HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE
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VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

APPRENTICESHIPS

  • TRAINING AT WORK AND PART TIME ATTENDANCE AT COLLEGE WITH AIM OF ACHIEVING NVQ LEVEL 3 QUALIFICATION

CRITICISMS OF VC

  • FINN: HIDDEN POLITICAL AGENDA: PROVIDES CHEAP LABOUR MARKET FOR EMPLOYERS - LOW PAY RATES
  • STRATHDEE - CREATES INEQUALITY FOR WORKING CLASS STUDENTS AND ETHNIC MINORITY STUDENTS - LEADING TO LOW PAID, UNSKILLED JOBS, WHILST MIDDLE CLASS ARE OPT FOR ACADEMIC COURSES.
  • NOT RECOGNISED AS A QUALIFICATION
  • NO CHANCE OF SOCIAL MOBILITY
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