AS Psychology- Memory- EWT- Research

Cards to help with the revision of researchers and what they did. Good for the A01 part of the big essay questions.

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Anxiety and EWT

Peters, 1988

  • What did he research?
  • How did he do it? Decribe the experiment carried out.
  • What was found?
  • What did it suggest?
  • Why was it good? One positive evaluation point.

Christianson et al, 1993

  • What was their study?
  • What did they find?
  • Why was this a good piece of research?
  • Who else found similar results?
  • What did they do?
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Anxiety and EWT

Peters, 1988

  • The inverted-U model for the effects of aniexty on EWT
  • Visit to a nurse who gave an injection, researcher saw them for same time. A week later, they were asked to identify both nurse and researcher.
  • Identification of the researcher was far more frequent than that of the nurse.
  • Heightened anxiety due to the injection led to a decrease in recall.
  • It was ecologically valid- getting an injection happens in real life.

Christianson et al, 1993

  • A survey of 110 witnesses to 22 real-life bank robberies, some bystanders, some threatened.
  • Found that victims subjected to greater anxiety showed more detailed recall.
  • It is ecologically valid as they were actual events from real life.
  • Yuille and Cutshall 1986
  • Witnesses accurate in reports despite high stress levels associated with a fatal shooting. 
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Age and EWT

Flin et al, 1992

  • What did they research?
  • Which groups were used?
  • How did they do this? Describe the experiment.
  • What did they find? Give the detailed results if possible.
  • Give two evalution points: one positive, one negative.

King and Yuille, 1987

  • What did they find?

Gruneberg and Morris, 1992

  • What did they find?
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Age and EWT

Flin et al, 1992

  • The effects of the passage of time on children's memory.
  • Children aged 5-6, 9-10 and adults.
  • Staged event involving a nurse giving a talk. Two helpers knocked over a slide, argued and one later apologised. At time intervals of 1 day and 5 months, all participants were given same questions about the talk and event.
  • 5-6 year olds able to recall nealy as much accurate detail (66%) after 1 day. After 5 months, accuracy fell to 36 %. But no more inaccurate than others.
  • Field experiment- high ecological validity, not randomly allocated- quasi exp.

King and Yuille, 1987

  • An interest in the topic causes accuracy equal to that of an adult.

Gruneberg and Morris, 1992

  • If the context is reinstated, the accuracy of child recall is as good as an adult.
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Misleading Information and EWT

Loftus and Palmer, 1974

  • What did they research?
  • What was the experimental design?
  • How did they do it? Describe the experiment in detail.
  • What were the speed estimates?
  • What did it show?
  • What was the follow-up study?
  • What did it show?
  • Give two evaluation points: one positive, one negative.
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Misleading Information and EWT

Loftus and Palmer, 1974

  • The use of leading questions and their influence on EWT, estimates of speed.
  • Independent groups design.
  • 45 students were shown a short film, afterwards given a questionnaire containing a critical question, in which the verb used to describe the car's speed changed. THe verbs used were: smashed, hit (control) bumped, collided and contacted. Witnesses estimates of car speed were recorded in mph.
  • Contacted- 31.8, hit- 34.0, bumped- 38.1, collided- 39.3 and smashed- 40.8.
  • Shows that the form of question can have a significant effect on a witness's answer.
  • Asked participants a week later to state whether or not they saw broken glass (there was none in the actual film shown)
  • 14% in control condition said yes, 32% in the "smashed" condition said yes.
  • Internal validity- a well-controlled laboratory experiment with and easily controlled IV- therefore easy to replicate.
  • Lack of ecological validity- a film shown, not a real-life event.
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