John Bowlby suggests that infants are born with the inherent instinct to form attachments.
His theory has 3 stages:
Monotropy - infants attaches primarily to only one maternal figure.
Internal working memory - Relationship with caregiver will help with future ones - base 'template' for how to deal with others in the future.
Sensitive period - CRITICAL PERIOD. They can form the attachment up to 3 years otherwise it might never be formed.
If attachment doesn't develop or if it’s broken then this can lead to serious damage on Childs social and emotional development.
Harlow’s study supports Bowlby. Schaffer infant cry/smile at people and objects.
Schaffer and Emerson
Attachment is the strong emotional bond between two people especially mother and caregiver.
Schaffer and Emerson conducted a study amongst 60 infants. They observed children in 2 situations.
AINSWORTH - there are 3 different types of attachments.
INSECURE AVOIDANT - Shows little or no concern when mother is present. Little interest when she returns and no indication of stranger anxiety. (12%)
INSECURE RESISTANT - Insecurity when care giver is present, intense distress when she leaves and not easily comforted when she returns. (22%)
SECURELY ATTACHED - Child plays contently when mother is present and is distressed when parted. However, is easily comforted when she returns and treats stranger with moderate avoidance.
Ainsworths + easily replicated. - lacks ecological validity. - Culturally biased, American middle class. - Unethical, infants are put in extreme anxiety. - Mother might have not been the main attachment figure.
VAN IJZENDOORN AND KROONERBERG
VAN IJZENDOORN AND KROONERBERG - CROSS CULTRAL STUDIES [ META ANALYSIS - 32 STUDIES ]
Van I & K found that secure attachment was the most common.
Western cultures - dominant insecure attachment was avoidant. Non-western was resistant.
Conclusion: Cross culture similarities in raising children.
Evaluation: Children bought up in differently, different attachments in different cultures. However - META ANALYSIS can HIDE individual results that show unusual trends.
STRANGE SITUATION RESEARCH - Cultural differences are found. GROSSMAN ET AL claimed that more 'avoidant' infants may be found in Germany because of the value the Germans put into independence - 'avoidance' is seen as a good thing.
The strange situation doesn't show characteristics of a child - especially shows relationship within a specific person, infants reacts differently with different careers.
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING - Learning to associate between different things in environment. Getting food gives the baby pleasure. Infant’s needs are fulfilled whenever mother is around to feed it. Association is formed between mother and good - baby will get pleasure when mum is around.