AS PE Unit 5

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Festivals of Sport

PRE INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY WAS CHARACTERISED BY:

  • Limited leisure time
  • The church calendar

2 SOCIAL CLASSES:

  • The gentry- landowners, had more time, better food/housing, less discomfort
  • The peasants- poor, uneducated, limited time, no land

ANCIENT ORIGINS

  • most sports were used to prepare men for war or to develop hunting skills 
  • The Greeks & Romans were first to establish sporting festivals
  • Development of combat sports occured after the Normal Conquest (1066)
  • Gentry trained their skills though joust and tournament
  • Archery was mainly used by the lower classes
  • Competitions were often set up by the gentry to motivate the peasants 
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Festival Games

  • time for sport was restricted to holy days 
  • activites were local and used ready to hand materials as travel was limited 
  • WINTER GAMES: mass games eg mob football
  • SUMMER GAMES: gentler, more individual athletic type activities eg sledge hammer throwing
  • GENTRY: more individual and sophisticated activities eg real tennis
  • PEASANTS: mob games 
  • invasion games were played to release aggression before Lent
  • sporting year began at New Year's Day and Plough Monday 
  • the church often provided space and time to play games with the local gentry offering patrogange and donating prizes
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Popular Recreations

Mob games: involve large numbers of players, often whole villages and teams. Examples include:

  • Haxey Hood
  • Shrovetide Football 
  • Hurling

These were referred to as popular recreations 

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The Olympic Games

originated in Ancient Greece, where they were held every 4 years to celebrate the god Zeus. 

WHO ESTABLISHED THE MODERN OLYMPIC GAMES:

  • Dr William Penny Brookes
  • Baron Pierre de Coubertin
  • Robert Dover established the long running Olympick Games held every Whitsuntide
  • Brookes developed a similar festival in Much Wenlock

De Coubertines objectives for the games were:

  • to help prevent war
  • to develop more international friendship 

The IOC organises the games every 4 years. Most of their income comes from selling the Festoon 

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Post Industrial Revolution

Sport in the post industrial phase was characterised by the development of codification and admnistration

URBANISATION:

  • people moved from rural to urban areas
  • rural elements from the popular recreation ear steadily declined
  • middle class emerged 
  • people became more educated

CODIFICATION:

  • creation and maintenance of a set of national rules
  • transport systems developed so people could travel around the country to compete on a national scale
  • people had slightly different rules for each game
  • NGBs were appointed to produce a set of standardised rules for each sport
  • NGBs organised more frequent fixtures and competitions
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Urbanisation

INDUSTRIALISATION:

  • life was based around the factory system
  • old holy days were lost

WORKING CONDITIONS:

  • long shifts and limited free time for the lower classes
  • C20th brought an increase in free time
  • Saturday half days, 10 hour act and early closings were inroduced

ECONOMICS:

  • formation of church and factory teams
  • sport became part of the entertainment business and entrepreneurs tried to make money out of it

Development of rationalised sport developed in public schools. Sport helped keep people out of trouble while also teaching them skills and virtues they could use later in life. 

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Emergence of Codification

  • organised games first appeared in public schools and were disapproved by teachers.
  • they soon realised that sport could bring educational values to the students. 
  • sports became a feature in all public schools
  • main sports were football, cricket and rowing 
  • these were physically demanding activities that relied on cooperation and leadership 
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Spreading the Games

The creation of the middle class resulting in a huge market for private education. Boys who left school spread the games around the world in different ways.

Colonial- colonial service, helping to administer and govern the British Empire

Army- commissioned officers in the armed forces

Teaching- teachers in expanding grammar schools 

Patronage- patrons supported sporting events by providing funding

University- Oxbridge provided students further time and resources to pursue sporitng activities

Industry- teams and clubs were formed within the work environment 

Church- Muscular Christianity promoted the use of sport as a vehicle for teaching Christian virtues

Clubs- students formed clubs so they could continue to play with each other and take part

Administration- many men joined NGBs to help formulate national rules

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The Role of Oxbridge

  • referred to as the 'melting pot' 
  • where many people came together in an attempt to rationalise the rules and create a standardised set
  • eg Cambridge rules of football drawn up by a committee of undergraduates in 1848
  • many of the new NGBs became the world's sport regulators 
  • eg Lawn Tennis Association and the Royal and Ancient Club
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Birth of the Modern Games

  • In 1894 Demetrius Vikelas (president of the Greek Gymnastics Society) became the first president of the IOC
  • The first games would be held in Athens in 1896

The congress did not want to duplicate the Ancient Games and wanted to give it more modern characteristics. They decided on the following new rules:

  • Each participating country should hold preliminary heats or contests so only true champions would take part in the games
  • Members of the IOC would be representative of global Olympism rather than their own countries
  • Each participating country had to establish a National Olympic Association 


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Globalisation

  • many of the sports that were developed in the UK spread around the world 
  • some sports have been adapted to better suit the environment 
  • eg Australian Rules and American Football are adaptations of rugby 
  • between 1960 and 1990 the US and USSR spent huge amounts of money to try to outdo each other in sporting disciplines
  • A win at the olympics proved that one political system was better than the other
  • Each country chose to boycott the Olympic Games as a form of political protest
  • This affected the 1980 and 1984 Oympics
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Americanisation

  • system of funding through sponsorship and media fees first developed in the US
  • this has changed the main ethic in sport from playing for the love of the game to win at all costs

the US federal government withdrew their funding for the 1984 Olympics. Uberroth's solution was:

  • Offering TV broadcasting rights to only one company
  • Leasing the festoon to commercial sponsors that wanted to display the logo on their products
  • a profit was recorded for the first time 
  • the games became known as the 'Hamburger Games' due to the sponsors being used 
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Commercialism

  • television companies pay huge amounts of money to cover the games
  • individual athletes train knowing the media will give them a stage they can present their talents on
  • they can earn money from this

SHAMATEURISM 

  • emerged in the 1970s
  • amateur athletes could receive unofficial payments in the form of commercial scholarships or state bursaries 
  • the win ethic replaced the recreational ethic
  • sport became a career rather than a leisure pursuit

By 1981 the IOC removed the term amateur form the Olympic Charter

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Deviance & Sportsmanship

Deviance is cheating or breaking the rules

  • this is not a new concept
  • ancient Olympians took tonics to improve their performance

SPORTSMANSHIP:

  • idea of fair play and winning by adhering to the rules and code of conduct
  • cheating detracts from personal achievement 
  • cheating can earn extrinsic rewards but not intrinsic ones
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Gamesmanship

  • using whatever means you can to overcome your opponent
  • bending the rules to your advantage

THE PROFESSIONAL FOUL:

  • stamping in rugby- the injured player has to leave the field for treatment, giving one team an advantage
  • sacking in American Football- defensive players attempting to sack the opposition quarterback who will not be able to play if he is deliberately injured
  • professional foul in football- an attacker is deliberately fouled to prevent him from scoring
  • sledging in cricket- verbally abusing an opponent in an attempt to break their concentration
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Performance Enhancing Drugs

  • drug abuse has been one of the main areas of deviance in sport in the last few years
  • it is unclear the actual level fo drug taking has increased or whether now we are more aware of it due to improvements in testing systems
  • the range and availability of drugs is constantly increasing, making control very difficult
  • the increase in the rewards of winning is putting more athletes in temptation of cheating
  • most media attention has been focused on the use of steroids
  • they have been difficult to trace in the past as they are taken during the preparation phase
  • authorities are now allowed to test athletes at any time in the year
  • a substance is only illegal if it is on the IOC Medical Commisions list of banned substances
  • athletes can still access other drugs that have not been banned yet
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WADA

World Anti Drugs Agency:

set up in 1998 when international sports bodies noticed that doping had become a big issue . their main concerns were:

  • athletes now spend so much time away from their home country and can only be tested by their home sports body
  • one court case could bankrup a whole sport eg the British Athletics Federation after the Diane Modahl ban

their mission is to promote and coordinate at international level the fight against doping in sport in all forms 

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Future Developments

Genetic engineering is considered o be the new threat to sports ethics, especially as four uses of genetic engineering have already been identified:

  • drugs can be fine tuned to suit an athlete's genetic composition
  • genetic information can be used to identify sporting talent
  • an athlete's genetic composition can be modified to improve performance
  • the cells of a newly fertilised egg can be adapted to produce 'super' athletes
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