AS Modern History - Germany 1919 - 1963 exam questions overview

notes on all of the topics the exam questions are going to be based on from Weimar all the way up to Adenaur and the economic miracle

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Why Was Germany Divided

1. Western Allied Aims + Policies

- Wanted a wealthy and rich west allied zones

- Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan, Bizonia + Trizonia

- Stalin thought he was being ganged up on, introduction of Deutchmark annoyed Stalin further but Allied forces pressed on with it anyway

- should take quite a bit of blame as pushed on with deutchamrk even when stalin didnt like it, and formed bizonia and trizonia, looked like ganging up on Stalin

2. Legacy Of WWll

- Red Army wanted revenge on facism, stalin wanted to make sure germany could never wage war on russia again

Zones- UK Zone - 27% of land + 22 million people, US Zone - 30% of land + 17 Million people, FR Zone - 12% of land + 6 million people

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3. Communist (USSR) Aims + Policies

- Wanted a weak and neutral Germany that could never attack Russia again

- Berlin Blockade - shut off West Berlin - provoked by Americans, didnt need to do it and it didnt work

- Should take half the blame for division of Germany as it was Stalind idea to put up Berlin blockade

4. Germany - W.Allied Zones + Adenaur

- Made W.Germany a very wealthy country, didnt have much choice as was being bossed around by everybody

- had to make a choice whether to stay on west or east side, but didnt have a choice when it was divided

- didnt have much blame as they didnt really have a choice as they were being bossed around and caught up in the middle of it

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Why Did The Weimar Republic collapse by 1933

1.Role Of Depression - wall street crash 1929 - Americans call in German loans, 1 worker in 3 becomes unemployed + Job uncertainty for many more

- soup kitchens/ homelessness were introduced

- Govt was under pressure to cut spending E.G on the welfare state

2. Role of Hindenburg/ Political Elites - Hindenburg president until he dies in 1934

- took lots of advice from other people and plotted and schemed regardless of the political outcome - used article 48

- Brunings Govt - 1930 - SPD + Nazis - Nazis wouldnt let bills pass cause chaos in Reichstag

- Papen Govt - KPD + Nazis - unworkable, extremist leftwing and extremist rightwing

- Schliecher - diagonol front - leftwing Nazis

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3. Role of Extremist Parties (NSDAP + KPD) - Volksparti - Peoples party - had appeal to everyone, Hitler was brillaint leader and great politcal strategist

- made things unworkable though in the Reichstag - wouldnt pass bills

- Communism - had no real programme for the furture, KPD used violence to create fear of a russian style revolution

- Thalmann stood for president, collided with Nazis disrupting the Reichstag

4.Role Of German Society/Weimar Legacy - Conservative classes were in conflict with lower classes

- Depression caused panic, wanted Weimar to do something about it, depression also caused people to vote for extremist parties

- Weimar System - unworkable govts no bills were passed whilst these govts existed

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How Stable Was The Weimar Republic by 1929

1. Treaty of Versialle/Foriegn Relations - 29 million marks in reparations to be paid, loss of territory + army cut to 100,000 with no navy or air force

- versaille caused hyperinflation, people and government had no money

- Stressmans foreign policy - ehrsfullingpolitik - Loacarno Pact and Dawes and Young Plan, stressman agreed to western borders and reparations reduced, people still not happy about eastern borders

2. Threats to political society - Leftwing - 1918 -23 series of uprisings, merseberg, ruhr, red army created a fear of russian style revolution

- Rightwing - Junkers, ex army officers, aristocrats - Kapp Putsch - freikorps take over berlin, white terror + Munich putsch are other examples

- Weimar political system had good laws but had serious flaws as it had no attempt to democratise at all

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3. The economy and its impact on soceity - Hyperinfaltion made the currency useless and everything was worth nothing

- middle calsses lost lots of savings in the banks as lots of banks collapsed E.G 5 in 1923

- Invention of new currency called reichsmark was breath of fresh air for economy, but middle classes now didnt trust the banks

4. Elites, Middles and working classes - germany was formed through war and it was the armys job to protect the government + reichstag

- Middle class - Lawyers, doctors and factory owners - all lost savings

- working class - factory workers, farmers, miners - some of them wanted a socialist revolution

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Why Did The Nazi's Rise To Power

1. Role Of Depression - Economic uncertainity, fear of communist revolution, middle class lost savings in banks and people were losing their jobs, turned to extremist ideas as a last resort and looked for an outsider to take charge

- voters were switching to nazis, there was no need to listen to hitlers apocalyptic views before the depression but they switched because of it

2. Role of Political System - hindenburg papen and schliecher, Hindenburg appointed hitler as chancellor and papen, bruning, schliecher and muller all messed up giving hitler a chance, papens cabinet of barons and schliechers diagonol front failed

- weimar system - coalition govts of muller and bruining collapsed, KPD and NSDAP in govt together meant that reichstag was unworkable

- unworkable govts were made because of proportional representation, Harzburg Front 1931 - DNVP working with hugenburg but not other parties in reichstag

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3. Role Of Hitler - Hitler was deictaed to his task and was a lead to a new future, nazism was mixture of new and old ideas but it changed over time to include more capatilist views

- Political deals - Hitler had goring and his prescence to reassure him that communism wouldnt come through the back door, Dusseldorf meeting 1931 secured support from big businesses

- Position of fuhrer + his vision - had leadership principle of total obidience, democracy was seen as degenerate, fuhrer ruled by decree because he was the best person for job

4. Role Of NSDAP - Organsiatios, Hitler Youth, teachers doctors and lawyers, used violence to intimidate opponents, Volkischer beobatcher newspaper, nazi on every street

- electioneering and campaigning - speeches which targeted certain people, SA - appealed to some as excitement and radicalism, others saw it as counterweight to communsim

- Propoganda - Directed at certain people, e.g Farmers, mothers, unemployed, tended to solidify views instead of changing them

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Comments

Jonathan

Good, but it's just depressed me so much.

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