AS Level ICT INFO1 - Analysis and Design

Summarising the most important points from the Analysis and Design section of the AS ICT INFO1 section.

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6. Analysis and Design - Identifying Problems

Analysing the problem is the very first step in building a solution.

The client is the person who needs a solution to the problem.

When defining the problem and finding a solution, the end-user must be considered, as they are the person who is actually going to use the solution.

The audience must also be considered, as they are the people who the final product could be aimed at.

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6. Analysis and Design - Validation and Verificati

Validation is the method used to check data to attempt to reduce the number of errors in the data being entered. It tests data against a validation rule and provides an error message if the data does not pass. There are a number of types of validation:

  • Presence check - Makes sure that some data has been entered.
  • Range check - Checks to make sure that data is within a certain range of letters or numbers.
  • Format check - Checks data to be sure if follows the correct pattern.
  • Length check - Makes sure the correct number of characters is entered.
  • Lookup check - Makes sure data entered is on the list of acceptable values.

Verification is the proof-reading of data to make sure that it is correctly entered. This is important because validation only minimises data-entry errors, and can never prevent any completely. For example, a range check may require the data to be between 1 and 5, but if a 3 is entered, when the correct value was a 4, then the data passes the validation rule, but is still incorrect.

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6. Analysis and Design - Identifying Requirements

[Card 1] The first and most important part of finding out the user and client's requirements is understanding the problem at hand. Many methods can be used in order to do this:

  • Using a questionnaire to collect information / data - These may feel impersonal, but are a very effective method of getting the views of a number of people. Due to this, it is an especially useful method if there are several end-users. Closed questions must be used, in order to make the answers easy to analyse, e.g.:
    • Q1. How often do you use your current system?
      • Less than one hour a day
      • 1-2hours a day
      • More than 2 hours a day
  • Interviewing the client - This is possibly the most obvious method of finding out what your client needs in their new system. An appointment must be carried out by:
    • Arranging an appointment
    • Preparing questions in advance
    • Being able to record what the client said - either by writing or recording sound
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6. Analysis and Design - Identifying Requirements

[Card 2] The first and most important part of finding out the user and client's requirements is understanding the problem at hand. Many methods can be used in order to do this:

  • Looking at existing paperwork - Looking at the use of existing paperwork can be a good method of understanding the current system. It may also help you to work out what the inputs and outputs of the system might be. These documents might show:
    • The data used in the system
    • The format of the data
    • How the output documents look
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Comments

Terry De Souza

Very Useful.

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